Skip to main content

Full text of "Maryland in Liberia; a history of the colony planted by the Maryland State Colonization Society under the auspices of the state of Maryland, U. S., at Cape Palmas on the southwest coast of Africa, 1833-1853 ... A paper read before the Maryland Historical Society, March 9th, 1885"

See other formats


MARYLAND  IN  LIBERIA 


A    HISTORY   OF 


The  Colony  planted  by  the  Maryland  State 

Colonization  Society  under  the  auspices 

of  the  State  of  Maryland,  U.  S.  at 

Cape  Palmas  on  the  South-West 

Coast  of  Africa,  1833-1853 


A  Paper  read  before  the  Maryland  Historical  Society 

March    9th,    1S85 
BY 

JOHN    H.    B.    LATROBE 

PRESIDENT  OF  THE  SOCIETY 


alHmors,  1885 


\ 


I 


MARYLAND  IN  LIBERIA. 


I 

I 


3fun&-^?uUicaticm, 


MARYLAND  IN  LIBKHIA 


A    HISTORY    OF 


The  Colony  planted  "by  the  Maryland  State 

Colonization  Society  under  the  auspices 

of  the  State  of  Maryland,  U.  S.  at 

Cape  Palmas  on  the  South-West 

Coast  of  Africa,  1833-1853 


A  Paper  read  before  the  Maryland  Historic:!!  Sin 


March     Oth, 


H  V 


JOHN    H.    B.    LATROBE 

I'UKSlUKNT     OF     THE     SOCIETY 


Diiltimorr.  Iss.") 


PEABODY  PUBLICATION  FUND. 


COMMITTEE  ON  PUBLICATION. 


^    HISTORICAL   Son  err, 
BALTIMORE,    18S5. 


ERRATA. 


Page  30,  Hue    2,  substitute  "have"     for  "has." 

•'1.  '        3,  "desire"    "    "desires." 

"     3S.  "      2,          "         "them it." 

"     40,  "     19.          "         "  Weah "    "    "  Weak." 
43,  5,          "         "beach"    "    "plain." 

'    46,  "     15,      insert      "  1834"    after  "  29th  December." 

58,  '      15,  substitute  "objectionable"  for  "objectional." 

"    59,  lines  6  and  7,  substitute  "  their"      "    "its." 


PREFACE. 

When  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  closed  its 
active  operations  in  iXIJo,  Dr.  James  Hall,  who  had  been  its 
agent  and  business  manager,  and  the  editor  of  the  Maryland 
Colonization  Journal,  arranged  carefully  all  the  hooks  and 
papers  of  the  Society  and  placed  them  in  the  custody  of  the 
Maryland  Historical  Society.  It  has  been  from  this  collection 

</  » 

and  from  the  personal  knowledge  of  the  writer  that  the  following 
history  has  been  prepared.  He  has  had,  in  addition,  the  memo- 
randa of  Dr.  Hall  to  aid  him  in  the  work.  The  material  has  not 
by  any  means  been  exhausted,  and  the  reports  of  the  State 
Society,  which  are  in  print,  and  the  ten  volumes  of  the  Colon- 
ization Journal  are  well  worthy  of  examination  by  those  who  axe 
interested  in  seeing  how  a  nation  may  be  built  up  from  its  earliest 
infancy,  and  until  it  enters  as  an  adult  into  the  family  of 
nations. 


MARYLAND  IN  LIBERIA. 


IN  Scharf  s  History  of  Maryland.  Vol.  3,  p.  320, 
it  is  said,  that  "at  December  Session,  1831, 
of  the  Legislature  of  Maryland,  the  .State 

*- 

embarked  zealously  in  the  work  of  African  coloni- 

V 

zation  and  made  the  munificent  appropriation  of 
$10,000  for  twenty-six  years,  for  the  transportation 
and  removal  of  emigrants  to  Africa ;  and  the 
State  Society  was  incorporated  to  accomplish  the 
ends  it  had  in  view." 

The  above,  if  not  as  accurate  as  it  might  be, 
suffices  to  inform  the  general  reader  that  Mary- 
land contributed  largely  toward  African  coloniza- 
tion. But  the  circumstances  that  induced  the 
appropriation,  and  the  history  of  what  ensued  in 
this  connection  until  the  fund  was  exhausted, 
deserve  a  more  ample  notice.  This,  the  writer 
has  again  and  again  tried  to  persuade  others  to 
prepare,  indicating  the  materials  to  be  found  in 
the  Historical  Society  and  placing  his  own  pecu- 
liar knowledge  on  the  subject  at  their  disposal. 
Nothing  has  been  done,  however ;  and  so,  the 
writer,  unwilling  to  leave  the  work  undone,  while 

7 


L 


8 


time    vet   remained    to    him,    has    undertaken,    in 

•> 

justice  riot  only  to  the  State,  but  to  associates 
nearly  all  of  whom  have  long  since  passed  away, 
to  write  a  narrative,  his  own  connection  with 
whose  events  has  hitherto  made  him  prefer  that 
other  hands  should  supply  what  has  always 
seemed  to  him  to  be  an  omission  in  the  history  of 
Maryland. 

V 

It  is  certainly  a  noticeable  fact  that  a  private 
corporation  of  this  State  should  have  purchased 
territory  in  Africa  from  native  kings,  with  all 
attributes  of  sovereignty,  have  planted  there 
a  colony  of  emigrants  from  Maryland,  carrying 
with  them  a  constitution,  a  bill  of  rights,  and  a 
svstem  of  laws  that  placed  them,  from  the  moment 

v 

of  landing,  in  the  condition  of  a  well-organized 
community — a  svstem,  one  of  the  fundamental 

«/  • 

principles  of  which  was  total  abstinence  from  the 
use  of,  or  traffic  in  ardent  spirits — a  system  under 
which  they  lived  and  throve,  until  at  the  end  of 

*/ 

twenty  years  of  unbroken  prosperity,  there  was 
transferred  to  them,  at  their  own  request,  the  sove- 
reign power  of  the  original  owners  of  the  soil, 
and  they  became  one  of  the  family  of  Nations, 
under  a  constitutional  republican  government; 
and,  although  the  then  so-called  ''State  of  Marv- 

»/ 

land  in  Liberia  "  afterwards  united  itself  bv  treaty 

ft-  V 

to  the  Republic  of  Liberia,  where  it  is  now  known 


as  Maryland  County,  its  origin  and  the  history 
of  its  comparatively  brief  independent  existence 
ought  not  to  be  absolutely  forgotten. 

t/ 

In  1810,  the  American  Colonization  Society, 
now  in  the  seventieth  year  of  its  existence,  sent 
two  of  its  agents  to  Africa  to  select  a  site  for  a 
colony  of  free  colored  people  from  the  United 
States.  They  selected  Sherbro  Island,  not  far 
from  the  British  colony  of  Sierra  Leone.  The 

«/ 

Society's  pecuniary  means  were  limited,  and  it 
might  never  have  taken  possession  had  not  Mr. 
Monroe  construed  the  Act  of  Congress  of  1819, 
which  required  slaves  imported  after  1807  to  be 
kept,  until  removed,  in  custody,  as  justifying  him 
in  employing  the  agency  of  the  Society  in  remov- 
ing them  to  their  native  country.  The  ship 
Elizabeth  was  then  chartered  by  the  Government 

«/ 

and  sailed,  with  emigrants  furnished  by  the  So- 
ciety, to  Sherbro.  This  site  proving  unhealthy, 
the  emigrants  were  removed  to  another,  which 
was  equally  so ;  whereupon  the  President  dis- 
patched Captain  Robert  F.  Stockton,  in  the  armed 
schooner  Alligator,  to  the  coast,  on  a  voyage  of 

«/       O 

exploration,  which  resulted  in  the  purchase  of 
Cape  Mesurada  from  the  natives.  The  deed  was 
made  to  Robert  F.  Stockton  and  Dr.  Eli  Avres, 

t/ 

his  companion  on  the  voyage  and  an  agent  of  the 
Society,  in  trust  for  emigrants  who  might  choose 


10 

to  settle  there.     To  this  place  the  survivors  of  the 
emigrants  bv  the  Elizabeth  were  removed,  and  the 

m 

seed   was  planted    that    has   grown  and  branched 
into  the  Republic  of  Liberia. 

It  was  not  long  before  news  came  that  the  colo- 
nists were  "turbulent  and  insubordinate/  u  There 
was  no  civil  government;  what  stood  in  the  place 
of  one,  was  a  pure  despotism  of  an  agent,  resting 
on  no  legal  basis  and  possessing  no  physical  force 
to  compel  obedience."  l  In  time  this  was  remedied 
and  the  reign  of  law  and  order  was  established. 
It  is  mentioned  to  show  the  warning  of  which  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  availed  itself 
at  a  later  date. 

To  carry  on  its  work  the  American  Colonization 
Society  depended  upon  the  collections  made  by 
auxiliaries.  One  of  the  most  productive  of  these 
was  in  Baltimore.  The  interest  in  the  subject, 
however,  had  spread  throughout  the  State;  and  on 
the  6th  of  March,  1827.  the  Legislature  directed 
"  the  treasurer  of  the  Western  Shore  to  pay  for 
the  use  of  the  Society  one  thousand  dollars,  pro- 
vided he  should  be  satisfied  that  the  sum  would 
be  expended  for  the  benefit  of  the  people  of  color 
who  had  been  actual  residents  of  Maryland  for 

V 

twelve    months    prior    to    their    embarkation    for 

1  See  Memorial  Volume  of  Am.  Col.  Society,  pp.  81,  82. 


11 

Africa.  A  like  sum  was  directed  to  be  paid  annu- 
ally to  the  Society  on  proof  to  the  same  effect. 

Including   the   emigration   of    1828,    there    had 

O  ™ 

been  sent  to  Liberia  from  various  States  seven 
hundred  and  fifty-seven  emigrants ;  and  the  pros- 
pects in  this  respect  were  so  satisfactory  that,  at 
the  annual  meeting  in  that  year,  the  Society 
adopted  a  resolution  offered  by  Mr.  Latrobe,  a 
delegate  from  Maryland,  "  that  the  Board  of  Man- 
agers be  requested  to  ascertain  in  the  course  of 
the  ensuing  year,  if  possible,  the  practicability  of 
obtaining  territory  for  colonial  settlements  at  Cape 
Palmas  and  the  island  of  Bulama,  on  the  south- 
west coast  of  Africa."  In  support  of  this  resolu- 
tion the  advantages  of  Cape  Palmas  were  des- 
cribed on  information  derived  mainlv  from  Dr. 

ti 

Ayres,  the  companion  of  Captain  Stockton,  and 
from  inspection  of  the  map  of  Africa. 

In  1829,  there  was  remitted  to  the  Society  in 
Washington,  between  two  and  three  thousand 
dollars,  the  proceeds  of  a  fair  held  in  Baltimore. 
This  was  a  lar^e  sum  in  those  davs :  but  there 

V 

was  a  reaction  in  the  feeling  that  produced  it, 
owing  to  the  emigration  from  Maryland  being  so 
very  small  that  the  parent  Society  was  unable  to 
meet  the  condition  on  which  the  payment  of  the 
State's  subscription  for  that  year  depended.  At 


12 

any  rate,  all  interest  in  colonization  seemed  to  die 
o tit  for  the  time ;  nor  was  it  revival  until  Robert 
S.  Finley,  the  son  of  the  founder  of  the  American 
Colonization  Society,  came  to  Jialtimore  in  1H.'J2 
and  undertook  its  advocacy  with  a  rare  and 
jwculiar  eloquence  that  attracted  crowds  to  hear 
him.  He  infused  a  new  spirit  into  the  old  friends 
of  the  cause;  and  at  a  meeting  held  by  them 
on  the  22nd  of  February.  18;J2.  tin-  following 
preamble  and  resolutions  were  adopted  : 

"Whereas  this  meeting  is  of  opinion  that  the 
plan  of  establishing  a  colony  of  free  colored  people 
from  the  United  States  has  been  proved  to  be  per- 
fectly practicable,  through  the  /ealous,  unwaver- 
ing and  philanthropic  exertions  of  the  American 
Colonization  Society;  and  whereas,  greater  con- 
centration of  effort  and  multiplication  of  resources 
than  have  hitherto  been  obt;tined,  are  obviously 

v 

necessary  to  secure  the  ultimate  accomplishment 
of  the  great  object  in  \  ,ew,  the  removal  of  the 

t/ 

free  people  of  color  with  their  o\vn  consent  to 
Africa;  and  when-as,  it  is  deemed  expedient  to 
endeavor  to  apply  the  means  that  may  be  raised 
in  Maryland  to  the  removal  of  the  free  people  of 
color  of  Maryland  :  and  whereas,  it  is  considered 
that  such  well  known  application  of  these  means 
will  ensure  a  great  increase  in  their  amount,  and 
thus  materially  advance  the  great  aim  of  the 


13 

Society — therefore,  resolved,  that  this  meeting  will 
proceed  to  form  itself  into  a  State  Colonization 
Society,  auxiliary  to  the  American  Colonization 
Society  at  Washington,  and  that  its  efforts  shall 
be  devoted  under  the  auspices  of  that  Society,  to 
the  removal  of  the  free  people  of  color  with  their 
own  consent  to  Africa." 

Messrs.  J.  H.  B.  Latrobe,  Peter  Hoffman  and 
Dr.  Samuel  Baker  were  then  appointed  a  committee 
to  prepare  a  constitution,  which  was  subsequently 
adopted  and  which  was  the  foundation  of  the  sys- 
tem of  independent  State  action  under  which  colo- 
nization was  afterwards  carried  on  in  Maryland  by 
"The  Maryland  State  Colonization  Societv,"  which 

»/    ' 

was  the  name  given  to  the  association.1 

The  first  act  of  the  Board  of  Managers  on  the 

O 

27th  of  March,  1831,  was  to  resolve  to  despatch  an 
expedition  to  Liberia  in  the  following  June,  and 
the  Secretary  was  directed  to  correspond  with  the 
Parent  Society  to  obtain  such  documents  as  would 
entitle  emigrants  from  Maryland,  on  their  arrival 

•> 

'The  officers  of  the  Society  were  (Jeorge  Hoffman,  First  President, 
Thomas  Ellicott,  Second,  and  Nicholas  lime,  Third  1'resident;  Alexander 
Nesbit,  Thomas  E.  Bond,  Nathaniel  Williams,  Viet-  I'lvsid.-nt.- ;  John 
Hoffman,  Treasurer;  James  Howard,  Secretary;  Mo-es  Shepiard,  Peter 
Hoffman,  Gen' 1  Samuel  McDonald,  Alexander  Fridge,  I>r.  Samuel  Huker, 
Peter  Netf,  Charles  Howard,  Solonr.m  Etting,  J.  J.  Harrod,  Jnhn  (Jil.son, 
Ed  ward  J.  Coale,  and  John  II.  I!.  Latrobe,  Managers;  Dr.  Eli  Avres, 
Agent;  Solomon  Etting,  Moses  Sbeppard  and  Charles  Howard,  Executive 
(  ornruittee. 

3 


14 

in  Africa,  to  participate   in   the  rights  and  privi- 
leges of  other  colonists. 

A  long  correspondence  followed.  It  involved 
the  principle  of  independent  State  action,  which 
the  Parent  Society  deprecated  as  narrowing  its 
field  for  collecting  money  and  emigrants.  It 
ended  bv  the  State  •  Society's  aoreeinsr  to  reini- 

i,  t-1 

burse    the    parent    board    for    whatever    expenses 
the    emigrants    from     Marvland     rui  slit    cause    in 

~  *  C? 

Liberia,  to  be  ascertained   bv  the  colonial   a^ent. 

«. 

It  was  with  this  understanding  that  the  State 
Society  despatched  the  schooner  Orion,  with  Dr. 
James  Hall  on  board  as  a  passenger,  with  thirty- 
one  emigrants  to  Monrovia,  on  the  25th  of  Octo- 
ber, 1831,  and  the  ship  Lafayette,  with  one  hun- 
dred and  forty-four,  in  December,  1832. 

It  would  not  be  fair,  however,  to  attribute  the 
large  emigration  by  the  Lafayette  to  independent 
State  action.  There  can  be  little  doubt  that  it 
was  owing,  in  great  measure,  to  the  so-called 
"Southampton  Massacres." 

In  August,  1831,  sixty-rive  whites,  men,  women 
and  children,  were  massacred  in  cold  blood  by 
negroes  under  Xat  Turner,  in  Southampton 
County,  Virginia.  Up  to  this  time  there  had  been 
a  growing  feeling  in  favor  of  emancipation  in 
Maryland,  Virginia  and  Kentucky.  Xow,  there 
was  a  strong  reaction  ;  and  stringent  laws  affecting 


15 

slavery  and  free  negroes  were  enacted  in  these 
States.  The  Maryland  law  bears  date  March  12, 
1832,  but  is  commonly  spoken  of  as  the  law  of 
1831,  having  been  passed  at  December  session  of 
that  year.  Its  close  connection  with  our  subject 
requires  a  particular  reference  to  some  of  its  pro- 
visions. 

The  first  section  provides  for  the  appointment 
of  three  commissioners,  members  of  the  Maryland 
State  Colonization  Society,  whose  duty  it  is  to 
remove  from  the  State  the  people  of  color  now  free, 
or  such  as  shall  become  so,  to  Liberia,  or  such 
other  place,  without  the  State,  as  they  may  approve, 
and  the  party  to  be  removed  may  consent  to  go  to, 
and  to  provide  for  their  establishment  and  sup- 
port as  far  as  necessary. 

The  second  section  provides  for  the  payment  to 
the  commissioners  of  such  sums  as  they  shall  from 

\i 

time  to  time  require,  not  exceeding  in  all  the  sum 
of  $20,000,  during  the  present  year  (1832),  to 
be  applied  by  them  in  their  discretion  for  the 
above  purpose,  with  power  to  make  preparations 
in  Liberia  if  they  think  best. 

The  third  section  requires  the  Registers  of  Wills 
and  County  Clerks  to  furnish  lists  of  manumitted 
slaves  to  be  removed.  If  the  party  refuses  to  c;o 

J.  •/ 

to  Liberia,  the  Sheriff  is  required  to  put  him  out 
of  the  State. 

The  fourth  section  authorizes  slaves  to  refuse 
manumission.  The  fifth  enables  the  Orphans' 


16 


Court  to  permit  manumitted  slaves  to  remain  in 
the  State.  The  sixth  authorizes  manumitted  slaves 
to  be  hired  out  until  their  wages  pay  the  expense 
of  their  removal.  The  seventh  requires  the  Treas- 
urer to  borrow  £20.000  to  make  the  first  year's 

•' 

payment,  and  the  eighth  apportions  the  annual 
payments  among  the  several  counties  and  the  city 
of  Baltimore.1  The  remaining  sections  of  the  Act 

* — - 

have  no  immediate  bearing  on  the  present  topic. - 

The  harshness  that  prompted  the  above  legisla- 
tion soon  gave  way  to  the  kindly  feeling  that  had 
always  influenced  the  people  of  Maryland  towards 
the  colored  population.  In  but  a  single  instance 
was  the  Sheriff  called  upon  to  remove  a  manu- 
mitted slave  beyond  the  borders  of  the  State. 

Cotemporaneously  with  the  passage  of  the  Act 
of  1831,  the  State  Colonization  Society,  which  had 
previously  existed  as  a  voluntary  association,  was 
incorporated  by  the  Act  of  1831,  chapter  314. 

The  charter,  the  extent  of  whose  powers  in  the 
present  connection  it  is  important  to  note,  espe- 
cially authorized  the  incorporators  "  to  purchase, 

'Although  the  Act  of  1831  left  the  amount  to  be  drawn  by  the  commis- 
sioners, from  the  treasury  annually,  after  the  first  year,  to  their  discretion, 
yet  the  setond  section  svhich  apportions  the  sum  of  sliHiOO  as  the  annual 
contribution  of  the  several  countirs  and  the  city  of  Baltimore,  was  held 
to  limit  the  commissioners  to  that  amount.  See  Act  of  1852,  ch.  20'2. 

2  The  law  of  1831  was  prepared  by  Henry  Brawner,  from  Charles  County, 
one  of  the  ublest  members  of  the  Legislature. 


17 

have  and  enjoy,  to  them  and  their  successors,  in 
fee.  or  otherwise,  any  lands,  tenements  and  here- 
ditaments by  gift,  grant,  bargain  and  sale,  devise, 
or  other  act  of  any  person  or  persons,  body  politic 
or  corporate  whatsoever  .  .  .  and  to  occupy,  use 
and  enjoy,  or  sell,  transfer  or  otherwise  dispose  of, 
all  such  lands,  tenements  and  hereditaments, 
sroods  or  chattels,  in  such  manner  as  thev  shall 

o  «• 

determine  the  best  adapted  and  most  conducive 
to  the  object  of  colonizing,  with  their  own  consent, 
in  Africa  the  free  people  of  color  in  Maryland, 
and  such  slaves  as  mav  be  manumitted  for  the 

»/ 

purpose,  and  which  is  declared  to  be  the  sole  and 
exclusive  object  of  the  said  Society." 

It  was  under  this  charter  that  the  State  Society 
took  it  upon  itself  to  acquire,  by  purchase,  terri- 
tory in  Africa  and  to  exercise  a  power  that  had 
the  incidents  of  sovereignty. 

The  first   use   made   by   the   Commissioners   of 

\j 

the  State  fund  was  to  charter  the  ship  Lafayette 
for  Liberia,  as  already  mentioned. 

The  accounts  brought  bv  the  Lafavette  on  her 

ft<  V 

return  were  so  verv  unsatisfactory  that  the  com- 

tr  ^ 

missioners  determined  to  suspend  further  emigra- 
tion for  the  present ;  and  the  active  promoters 
<>f  the  cause  in  Baltimore  became,  for  a  season, 
greatly  discouraged.  Colonization,  however,  was 
not  to  be  abandoned  because  of  temporary  mis- 


18 

management  in  Africa,  or  the  want  of  pecuniary 
means  in  Washington  ;  and  it  came  to  be  asked 
whether  Cape  Palmas,  which  had  been  suggested 
at  Washington  in  1828,  might  not,  in  this  emer- 
gency, be  found  to  be  a  site  upon  which,  with 
due  preparation  and  with  adequate  pecuniary 
means,  a  colony  miirht  be  planted  that  would 

i 

be  free  from  the  difficulties  that  were  hampering 
the  Society  at  Washington. 

», 

As  far  back  as  October  4th,  1832,  Messrs.  La- 
trobe,  Judge  Brice  and  Charles  Carroll  Harper 
had  been  appointed  a  committee  to  consider  and 
report  upon  communications  that  had  been  re- 
ceived from  different  parties  in  regard  to  new 
settlements  in  Africa;  and  on  the  return  of  the 
Lafayette,  the  committee,  reirardini?  a  new  settle- 

*/ 

ment  as  the  only  alternative    to  a   failure  of  the 

V 

colonization  cause  in  Maryland,  reported  the  fol- 
lowing resolution,  which  was  adopted. 

"  That  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society 

•. 

will  forthwith  establish  a  settlement  on  the  coast 
of  Africa,  and  will  take  immediate  means  to  pro- 
cure, both  within  and  without  the  State,  the  neces- 
sary pecuniary  aid ;  and  that  the  committee  hereto- 
fore appointed  on  the  subject  of  new  settlements  be 
directed  to  report  to  the  board  upon  the  position 
and  details,  together  with  the  probable  cost  of  the 
same,  and  that  the  commissioners  of  the  State 


19 

fund  he  requested  to  lend  tlieir  aid  in  such  man- 
ner as  they  may  deem  proper  in  this  behalf."  1 

In  the  preamble  to  this  resolution  it  was  recited 
amonir  other  things  that  k'it  was  believed  that  a 

O  «— 

settlement  thus  formed  by  a  Society,  whose  avowed 
object  was  the  extirpation  of  slavery  in  Maryland, 
by  proper  and  gradual  efforts  addressed  to  the 
understanding  and  experience  of  the  people  of  the 
State,  would  be  viewed  with  peculiar  interest  by 
those  who  advocated  colonization  on  account  of 
its  tendencies  towards  liberty." 

v 

f 

On  the  28th  June,  the  committee  reported  that 
"thev  had    no    hesitation    in  recommending  Cape 

v 

Palmas  or  its  vicinity,  as  the  most  suitable  posi- 
tion for  a  new  settlement  to  the  leeward  of  Mon- 
rovia. Its  advantages  were  great  in  a  commercial 
aspect,  equally  so  in  an  agricultural  one,  and  there 
was  no  reason  to  believe  that  its  health  was  not 
equal  to  that  of  any  other  situation  on  the  coast." 
The  report  was  accepted,  and  the  following 
resolutions,  after  a  prolonged  discussion  of  the 
subject,  and  after  amendment,  were  unanimously 
adopted  as  the  basis  of  the  Society's  action  in  the 
premises.2 


s,  Vol.  I,  p.  74. 

*  \\  itli   the   views   entertained,    nowadays,    of  slavery,    it    perhaps  seems 
.'   that   there   should    have   been    any  question   as  to  the  propriety  of 


20 
"Whereas,  the  Society  have  resolved  to  establish 

«/ 

a  settlement  at  some  suitable  point  on  the  coast 
of  Africa,  and  to  take  measures  to  procure  both 
within  and  without  the  State  the  necessary  pecu- 
niary aid ;  and  whereas  Cape  Palmas,  or  its 

vicinitv,  has    been  recommended  as  affording  ad- 

«/ ' 

vantages  for  such  a  settlement,  which  justify  steps 
for  its  more  particular  exploration  and  purchase; 
and  whereas  it  is  proper,  before  proceeding  to 
make  the  application  for  the  aid  contemplated, 
that  the  principles  upon  which  it  is  intended  to 
establish  the  settlement  should  be  distinctly  stated 

t, 

for  the  information   of  those  who  may  be  willing 

adopting  the  resolutions  of  the  text.  But,  half  a  century  ago,  slavery  was 
regarded  in  the  States  where  it  existed  as  an  institution  upon  whose  per- 
manence the  wealth  and  prosperity  of  so  many  were  dependent,  that  any- 
thing which,  by  possibility,  might  interfere  with  it,  was  looked  ujton  with 
jealousy  and  distrust.  So  fixed,  indeed,  did  it  seem  to  be,  that  even  those 
who  deplored  its  existence,  seeing  no  way  to  get  rid  of  it,  and  never 
dreaming  of  the  civil  war  which  closed  with  its  destruction,  were  disposed 
to  consider  it  as  a  necessary  evil,  and  to  leave  it  with  the  future  to  be 
dealt  with.  The  Constitution  of  the  American  Colonization  Society  had 
carefully  avoided  all  reference  to  it,  when  it  declared  the  object  to  be  "  the 
removal  of  the  jrne  people  of  color,  with  their  own  consent,  to  Africa," 
and  the  Maryland  law  of  1X31  found  supporters  in  the  belief  that,  by  >uch 
removal,  the  property  in  slaves  would  be  enhanced  in  value  or  made  more 
secure.  The  action  of  the  State  Society,  therefore,  which  frankly  declared 
that  the  extirpation  of  slavery  in  Maryland  was  its  ultimate  object,  was 
/*  far  in  advance  of  anything  that  had  been  done  in  this  connection  in  the 

slave-holding  States,  and  the  discussion  of  the  resolutions  was  naturallv 
careful  and  deliberate.  Not  only  was  the  principle  involved  to  be  con- 
sidered, but  the  effect  of  the  resolutions  upon  the  public,  and  especially 
their  effect  on  the  Legislature,  upon  which  the  Act  of  ls;>l  made  the 
Society  practically  dependent  for  the  means  of  accomplishing  its  purposes. 


21 


to  lend  their  assistance  to  the  cause  of  coloniza- 
tion as  advocated  bv  this  Society;  therefore  it  is 

f  «/ 

resolved: 

"First.  That  the  Maryland  State  Colonization 
Society  look  forward  to  the  extirpation  of  slavery 
in  Maryland,  by  proper  and  gradual  efforts  ad- 
dressed to  the  understanding  and  experience  of 
the  people  of  the  State,  as  the  peculiar  object  of 
their  labors. 

"Second.  That  the  Society  believe  that  this  can 

v 

best  be  accomplished,  under  existing  circumstances, 
by  advocating  and  assisting  the  cause  of  coloni- 
zation. 

"Third.  That  the  colonization  of  the  free  people 
of  color,  of  the  United  States,  on  the  coast  of 
Africa,  will  not  only  promote  their  own  temporal 
freedom  and  happiness,  but  be  the  means  of 
spreading  the  light  of  civilization  and  the  Gospel 
in  Africa. 

"Fourth.  And  whereas  it  is  desired  that  the  set- 
tlement about  to  be  made  should,  as  far  as  prac- 
ticable, become  a  moral  and  temperate  commu- 
nity, which  is  to  be  effected  in  a  great  degree  by 
the  character  of  the  emigrants  who  may  leave 
America  for  a  new  home  in  Africa  ;  and  whereas 
the  sad  experience  of  this  country  has  shown  the 
demoralizing  effect  of  the  use  of  ardent  spirits ; 
be  it  resolved  that  no  emigrant  shall  be  permitted 
to  go  from  America  to  a  settlement  of  this  Society, 
4 


in  Africa,  who  shall  not  first  bind  himself  or  her- 
self to  abstain  therefrom. 

"Fifth.  That  the  principle  of  abstaining  from  the 
use  of  ardent  spirits,  except  for  medicinal  pur- 
poses, be  incorporated  into  the  local  government 
of  the  settlements  of  this  Society  in  Africa,  so 
that  no  person  shall  be  capable  of  holding  office 
therein  who  shall  not  first  pledge  himself  to  ab- 
stain from  the  use  of,  or  traffic  in,  ardent  spirit, 
with  the  above  exception. 

"Sixth.  That   this    Society    believe  that  in  thus 

«/ 

uniting  the  two  great  causes  of  colonization  and 
temperance,  the  best  interests  of  both  will  be  pro- 
moted ;  colonization  will  advance  with  a  healthier 
step  to  ultimate  success,  and  temperance  will  find, 
in  a  nation  founded  on  its  principles,  an  illustra- 
tion that  must  be  forever  conclusive  as  to  its  polit- 
ical benefits  and  an  example  all  powerful  in  its 
influences 

"Seventh.  That  this  Society,  while  they  will  en- 

«/   '  */ 

courage  at  all  times  communication  with  their 
settlements,  so  as  to  increase  facilities  for  emigra- 
tion, will  make  their  agricultural  character  and 
improvement  the  peculiar  object  of  their  solici- 
tude." 

The  adoption  of  the  above  platform  was  all  the 
more  important  at  this  time  in  view  of  the  attitude 
that  the  State  had  recently  assumed  in  regard  to 
colonization. 


23 


When,  in  1826,  the  Legislature  directed  $1.000 
to  he  paid  annually  to  the  American  Colonization 
Society,  the  State  occupied  the  position  of  any 
other  contributor,  except  as  to  the  application  of 
the  fund.  When  the  State,  in  1831,  made  its 
appropriation  of  $10,000  annually,  the  expenditure 
was  not  left  to  the  Parent  Society,  but  was  conrided 
to  commissioners,  who  might  apply  it  at  their  dis- 
cretion, as  thev  did,  when  thev  sent  the  Lafavette 

*  «'  * 

to  Monrovia,  without  interfering  with   the  control 
of  the  Society  at  Washington  in  Africa. 

V 

Under  the  Act  of  December  Session  of  1832, 
passed  on  the  23d  of  March,  1833,  after  the  return 
of  the  Lafayette,  and  three  months  prior  to  the 
passage  of  the  foregoing  resolutions,  the  State, 
however,  assumed  a  new  attitude  in  regard  to 
colonization. 

After  reciting  the  Act  of  1826,  the  preamble  of 
the  Act  of  1832,  ch.  314,  continues : 

"And  whereas,  by  the  restrictions  of  said  Act, 
the  American  Colonization  Society  have  not  drawn 

•> 

upon  the  treasurer  for  several  years  past  for  the 
appropriations  made  by  the  Act  aforesaid,  for  the 
purpose  of  carrying  into  execution  the  benevolent 
designs  of  the  State;  and  whereas,  THE  STATE 

HAVING      NOW     EMBARKED      IN      THAT     GREAT     AND 

IMPORTANT  WORK,  ON  ITS  OWN  RESOURCES,  there- 
fore be  it  enacted,  that  the  several  sums  appro- 


24 

priated  as  aforesaid,  which  have  not  already  been 
appropriated,  be  and  the  same  are  hereby  appro- 
priated to  the  use  of  the  State,  as  other  monies 
now  in  the  treasury  ;  and  be  it  enacted,  that  the 

i/ 

said  Act  is  hereby  repealed  to  all  intents  and 
purposes." 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to   say  that  the  position 
thus  taken  bv  Maryland  strengthened   materially 

VI  «-' 

the  confidence  of  the   Board  of  Managers.     They 

i 

had  no\v  a  reasonable  expectation  that  the  aid  of 
the  State,  through  the  commissioners  of  the  State 

fund,  could  be  obtained:  and  it  was  only  riuht,  in 

«/      ~ 

all  fairness,  before  it  was  applied  for,  that  the 
principles  upon  which  the  Board  were  acting 
should  be  as  frankly  stated,  as  they  were  in  the 
resolutions  on  the  28th  of  June. 

On   the   same    day,   Messrs.   Latrobe,   Anderson 

*/    ' 

and  Howard  had  been  appointed  a  committee  to 
recommend  a  suitable  person  to  proceed  to  Africa 
to  purchase  a  site  for  a  settlement  at  Cape  Palmas 
or  in  its  neighborhood,  if  practicable,  under 
instructions  which  the  cjmmittee  were  to  prepare 
and  submit  to  the  Board. 

As  already  said,  amonir    the  passengers  in  the 

*.  •  '  O 

Orion,  in  October,  LS.'tt,  was  Dr.  James  Hall,  who, 
on  reaching  Monrovia,  was  at  once  employed  as  a 
physician  by  the  American  Colonization  Society. 

JL        v  w  «. 

On  his  passage  out,  amongst  other  matters  placed 


in  his  bands  for  information  concerning  coloniza- 
tion and  Liberia,  was  a  copy  of  the  African  Reposi- 
tory, containing  the  speech  already  referred  to, 
suggesting  Cape  Palinas  as  a  proper  site  for  a  new 
settlement;  and  having  occasion  to  visit  the  lee- 
ward coast  in  the  Margaret  Mercer.1  for  the  pur- 
chase of  rice  for  the  emigrants,  lie  took  occasion  to 
visit  the  Cape  and  see  for  himself  whether  the 
place  justified  the  description.  The  result  of  his 
examination  was  a  letter  to  Dr.  Ayres,  the  agent 
of  the  Society  when  the  Orion  sailed,  which  was 
most  satisfactory  in  regard  to  the  healthiness  and 

• 

agricultural   facilities  of  the    place.     It  came  into 

O  J- 

the  hands  of  the  committee  after  a  neur  settle- 
ment had  been  determined  upon  ;  and  when  on 
the  6th  of  June,  Dr.  Hall  himself  made  his 

'The  Margaret  Mercer  was  a  ves>el  luiilt  in  Baltimore  at  the  cost  of  the 
Pennsylvania  State  Colonization  Society,  and  presented  by  it  to  the  Parent 
Society.  It  was  called  after  a  Maryland  lady,  the  daughter  of  (icneral 
John  Francis  Mercer,  of  revolutionary  fame.  Among  the  friends  of  colo- 
nization she  was  the  most  devoted.  Inheriting  slaves  when  they  were  still 
valuable  in  Maryland,  she  manumitted  them,  sent  them  to  Liberia,  and 
during  her  life  watched  over  their  welfare.  Intelligent,  highly  accom- 
plished and  refined,  she  was  beloved  by  all  who  knew  her,  and  the  calling 
of  the  vessel  referred  to  by  her  name  wa-  no  more  than  a  recognition  of  her 
established  reputation  as  an  ctlicient  and  self-sacrificing  friend  of  the  cause 
to  which  she  devoted  her  time  and  contributed  largely  tYoni  her  jn-nmiarv 
means. 

It  was  an  odd  coincidence,  that  it  -hnuld  have  l>ccn  in  a  Baltiniore-hiult 
vessel,  called  after  a  Maryland  lady,  that  the  voyage  \\as  made  to  whit  h 
was  to  be  attributed  more  immediately  the  establishment  of  the  colony  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia. 


26 

appearance  in  Baltimore  on  his  way  to  Washing- 
ton, to  meet  the  Directors  of  the  American  Coloni- 
zation Society,  it  mav  readily  be  understood  with 

V  *  *' 

what  satisfaction  he  was  received,  especially  when 
he  expressed  his  readiness  to  return  to  Africa  at 
once,  if  required,  to  take  charge  of  the  proposed 
expedition.  It  was  this  and  his  subsequent  inter- 
course with  the  members  of  the  Board  of  Mana- 
gers that  led  the  committee  to  recommend  him  as 

o 

the  agent  for  the  occasion ;  although  it  was  not 
until  the  9th  of  September  that  he  was  formally 
appointed.1 

When  it  was  ascertained  on  the  arrival  of  Dr. 
Hall  in  Baltimore  in  June,  that  he  would  accept 

1  In  a  letter  addressed,  more  than  fifty  years  afterwards,  to  the  African 
Repository  for  October,  188o,  Dr.  Hall,  speaking  of  his  appointment,  says: 
"This  proposal  the  \Vriter  could  nut  forbear  accepting,  although  fully  sen- 
sible of  the  responsibility  of  the  undertaking  and  the  many  chances  of 
failure  in  the  execution  of  the  task  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  .Society  or  even 
of  himself.  In  the  first  place  his  heart  was  in  the  cause,  not  exactly  of 
colonization  but  of  Liberia.  By  a  residence  of  two  years  at  Monrovia  he 
had  imbibed  a  deep  interest  in  the  colony  and  formed  most  friendly  rela- 
tions with  many  of  its  citizens,  especially  Russwurm,  McGill,  Roberts,  Day 
and  many  others.  Without  vanity  or  overestimate  of  his  ability,  he  felt 
that  he  could  better  execute  the  task  than  any  other  man  they  could  or 
would-be  likely  to  obtain;  and  that  from  his  peculiar  fitness  therefor.  His 
early  training  before  and  while  acquiring  his  profession  had  made  him 
familiar  with  business;  and  in  Africa 'he  had  acquired  knowledge  most 
invaluable  and  important  for  the  position.  He  had  attended  scared v  less 
than  one  thousand  cases  of  African  fever.  He  was  familiar  with  the  African 
trade,  with  the  peculiarities  and  habits  of  the  natives,  well  acquainted  witli 
the  colonists,  and  able  to  make  good  selections  of  suitable  assistants,  and 
more  than  all,  had  visited  the  towns  on  the  entire  coastline  to  and  including 
the  point  proposed  for  settlement. 


27 

the  leadership  of  the  proposed  undertaking,  the 
next  tiling  to  be  done  was  to  secure  the  requisite 
pecuniary  means  for  carrying  it  on.  This  was 
afforded  by  the  Commissioners  of  the  State  Fund, 
who,  on  the  9th  of  July,  sent  the  following  reply  to 
a  note  addressed  to  them  on  the  7th. 

"  Whereas,  this  Board  have  come  to  the  conclu- 
sion, after  a  full  and  mature  consideration,  that  it 
will  not  be  prudent  or  judicious  to  send  any  emi- 
grants to  Monrovia  this  rear  owino-  to  the  circum- 

« 

stances  of  the  colony;  and  they  have  no  assurance 

*  *, 

that  the  colony  will  be,  for  some  time  to  come,  able 

•> 

to  receive  as  many  emigrants  as  the  Board  have 

it 

reason  to  think  will  be  prepared  to  leave  the  State 
of  Maryland. 

i/ 

"And  whereas,  the  Maryland  State  Colonization 

\> 

Society  have  it  in  contemplation  to  establish 
another  settlement  on  the  coast  which  would  afford 
great  facilities  for  the  reception  of  emigrants  from 
Maryland,  but  find  themselves  unable  to  accom- 
plish that  object  without  an  advance  of  funds  on 
the  part  of  this  Board,  therefore 

"  Resolved,  that  the  Board  will  pay  in  advance 
to  the  Managers  of  the  Maryland  State  Coloniza- 

*/ 

tion  Society  the  sum  of  $30   for   every  emigrant 

•>  t> 

which  that  Society  will  undertake  to  transport 
from  Maryland  to  Africa  during  the  present  year, 
and  provide  for  their  arrival  in  that  country. 

"Resolved,  that   the    Board    will    loan    to    the 
Society  such  further    sum    as   will,  together  with 


28 

the  payment  contemplated  by  the  foregoing  reso- 
lution, amount  to  a  sum  not  exceeding  S8,000,  the 
said  loan  to  be  repaid  bv  the  Maryland  State  Colo- 

«/  «, 

nization  Society's  transporting  hereafter  to  Africa, 
at  their  own  expense,  emigrants  at  such  a  rate  as 
the  Board  of  State  Managers  may  stipulate  at  the 
time  of  their  embarkation." 

At  the  same  meeting  a  committee  was  appointed 
to  address  a  letter  on  behalf  of  the  Board  to  the 
American  Colonization  Society,  at  Washington, 

*.    7 

assuring  it  that  in  the  steps  contemplated  by  the 
Maryland  Society  nothing  was  intended  savoring 

*/  «-'  ft 

of  rivalry  or  opposition  to  that  Society's  interest, 
but  was  prompted  by  a  desire  to  make  colonization 
successful  in  Maryland  to  the  extent  of  entire 

\j 

emancipation  ;  that  if  this  could  be  done,  not  only 
would  another  free  State  be  added  to  the  free 
States  of  the  Union,  but  an  example  all  powerful 
in  its  influence  would  be  afforded  of  the  yalue  and 
influence  of  colonization. 

At  the  same  time  it  was  resolyed  that  the  name 
of  the 'new  settlement  should  be  ''Maryland  in 

»/ 

Liberia,"  that  the  device  of  the  seal  of  the  Society 

«/ 

should  be  a  pyramid  and  palm  trees,  grouped 
together  as  an  emblem  of  Africa,  with  a  cross 
above,  from  which  rays  descend  upon  the  emblem, 
with  the  motto:  "Ethiopia  shall  soon  stretch 
forth  her  hands  unto  God; "  the  whole  surrounded 
by  the  corporate  title  of  the  Society ;  and  it  was 


29 

further  resolved,  that  the  flas;  of  the  Society's  set- 

»• 

tleuients-should  be  the  flag  of  the  United  States, 
except  that  in  place  of  the  stars  upon  a  blue  field, 
there  should  be  a  white  cross  of  equilateral  arms. 

On  the  9th  of  October  a  resolution  passed  by 
the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  American  Coloniza- 
tion Society  was  received,  trusting  that  the  con- 

«/ 

templated  settlement  would  prove  to  the  country 
at  large  the  benefits  of  the  colonization  scheme 
and  contribute  to  the  colonization  and  hap- 
piness of  the  African  continent.  The  Board  of 
Directors  further  expressed  their  willingness  to 
receive  the  emigrants  by  the  first  expedition  at 
Monrovia  or  Bassa,  until  the  Maryland  Society 
was  prepared  to  make  a  settlement  of  its  own. 

On  the  16th  of  October  it  was  resolved  to 
appoint  a  general  committee  of  nine  to  meet 
daily,  at  twelve  o'clock,  to  expedite  and  super- 
intend the  expedition  to  Cape  Palmas.1 


'The  committee  were  George  Hoffman,  Moses  Sheppard,  Solomon  Etting, 
William  George  Read,  Peter  Hotf'man,  J.  H.  B.  Latrobe,  PVanklin  Antler- 
son,  Charles  Howard,  and  Charles  Carroll  Harper.  The  most  zealous  and 
practically  useful  member  of  this  committee  was  the  late  Solomon  Etting, 
a  retired  merchant  of  the  highest  character,  who  gave  to  the  Society  the 
benefit  of  his  great  commercial  knowledge  and  accuracy,  aiding  Dr.  Hall 
throughout  with  the  active  energy  of  a  younger  man,  and  laying  the  State 
Society  under  obligations  which  cauaot  but  be  referred  to  when  his  name 
is  mentioned. 


. 

30 


The  "turbulence  and  insubordination'  of  the 
first  colonists  has  already  been  referred  to,  as  well 
as  the  comments  of  the  Memorial  Volume  in  that 
connection.  To  obviate  all  excuse  for  like  conduct 
by  the  emigrants  to  Cape  Palmas  and  their  succes- 
sors, it  was  determined  that  they  should  carry 
with  them  a  constitutional  form  of  government, 
assented  to  in  writing  by  each  individual,  to  which 
later  arrivals  in  the  territory  would  necessarily  be 
subject ;  and  to  this  end  Messrs.  Read,  Anderson 
and  Latrobe  had,  on  the  2nd  of  October,  1833, 
been  appointed  a  committee  to  prepare  "  a  consti- 
tution and  form  of  government  and  digest  of  laws 
for  the  settlements  of  Maryland  in  Africa,  with 
instructions  to  ^request  the  cooperation  of  David 
M.  Ferine  and  Hugh  Davy  Evans."1 

On  the  22nd  of  November,  1833,  Mr.  Latrobe, 
from  the  committee,  reported  a  draft  of  a  consti- 
tution and  bill  of  rights  to  a  full  meeting  of  the 
Board  of  Managers,  which  unanimously  adopted 
them. 

The  object  of  the  State  Society  and  the  princi- 
ples upon  which  it  acted  are  so  well  set  forth  in 
the  preamble  to  the  constitution,  that  this  part 

1  Mr.  Ferine' s  engagements  did  not  permit  him  to  act  on  the  committee  ; 
neither  did  Mr.  Evans';  although,  at  a  later  date,  Mr.  Evans  hecame  a 
member  of  the  Hoard,  and  drew  almost  all  the  laws  that  the  Society 
enacted. 


31 


of  the   instrument  properly  forms  a    part  of   the 
text.1 

''The   Maryland    State    Colonization    Society    of 
Maryland,  one  of  the  United   States  of   America, 

i 

to  all  persons  to  whom  these  presents  shall  come, 
greeting: 

"Whereas,    the    Maryland    State    Colonization 
Society  desires   to  hasten   as   far  as  they  can  the 

«  *< 

period  when  slavery  shall  cease  to  e.iist  in  Maryland, 
and  beliecinr/  that  this  can  best  be  done  by  advo- 
cating  and  assisting  the  cause  of  colonization  as 
the  safest,  truest  and  best  auxiliary  of  freedom 
under  existing  circumstances,  have  determined  to 
establish  a  settlement,  or  settlements,  of  free  col- 
ored people  and  emancipated  slaves,  at  or  near 
"Cape  Pal  mas,  on  the  west  coast  of  Africa,  to  be 
called  Maryland  in  Liberia ;  and  whereas,  it  is 

V 

not  less  the  desire  of  the  Society  that  the  evil  of 

*/ 

slavery  should    be  removed  from  Maryland,  than 

•/  ,  V 

1  "The  meeting  at  which  the  Constitution  was  adopted,  last  Friday,  was  a 
very  interesting  one.  By  the  time  the  documents  presented  to  the  Board 
of  Managers  were  adopted,  it  was  dusk,  and  two  candles  were  lirought  into 
the  large  grand  jury  room  in  which  the  Board  had  met.  The  Constitution 
had  l>een  engrossed  on  a  >kin  of  parchment,  with  the  seal  of  the  S»cietv 
attached,  and  Mr.  George  Hoffman,  the  President,  was  the  tirst  person 
called  upon  to  sign  it.  He  wrote  his  name  in  quite  a  John  Hancock  Myle, 
and  then  said,  '  May  the  lde»inic  of  Heaven  rest  upon  the  work  that  we 
have  now  commenced.'  The  room,  l>y  tlii-  time,  was  quite  dark,  except 
around  the  two  dim  candle-,  and  the  remark  of  the  President  was  wholly 
unexpected;  but  as,  soon  as  it  wa>  uttered  there  was  a  simultaneous  Amen, 
in  which  all  present  most  fervently  joined." — Fr>>m  <i  Hicni<>,-<iniluiii  nui<lt  //«: 
••veiling. 


32 

that  the  emigrants  from  the  State  should  find  their 

<- 

'  happiness  and  prosperity  promoted  by  their  change 

of  home,  and  that  through  their  instrumentality 
the  blessings  of  civilization  and  the  Gospel  should 
be  extended  to  a  benighted  land  ;  and  whereas, 
with  these  views  it  becomes  the  duty  of  the  State 
Society  to  afford  to  the  settlements  thev  mav  cause 

*/  v  v 

to  be  established  a  system  of  equal  laws,  that  shall 
secure  to  everv  emigrant  and  his  descendants  the 

n 

inalienable  rights  of  life,  liberty  and  the  pursuit 
of  happiness — therefore  be  it  known,  that  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  do  hereby 

*•  »/  «/ 

solemnly  enact   the   following   constitution  as  the 

«.  O 

basis  and   foundation  of  government  of  any   and 

V 

every  settlement  or  colony  which   may  be  estab- 

f  V  V 

lishecl  as  aforesaid  under  their  auspices  and  con- 
trol in  Africa,  ratifying  and  confirming  the  same, 
according  to  its  tenor,  to  all  emigrants  to  such  set- 
tlements, and  their  descendants,  so  long  as  the 
power  of  government  shall  continue  to  be  exer- 
cised by  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Societv." 
•i  «/  . 

The  first  article  then  declares  that  the  State 
Society  may  from  time  to  time  make  and  ordain 
laws,  rules,  &c.,  not  repugnant  to  the  Constitution, 
until  they  withdraw  their  agents  and  yield  the 

^  O  .. 

government  wholly  into  the  hands  of  the  people  of 
the  Territory. 

The  second  article  provides  that  any  emigrant 
of  full  age  shall  sign  a  declaration  to  support  the 


33 

Constitution  and  an  agreement  to  abstain  from  the 
use  of  ardent  spirits,  except  in  case  of  sickness. 

The  third  article  declares  that  no  person  shall 
hold  anv  office  who  either  uses  or  traffics  in  ardent 

V 

spirits. 

The  fourth  relates  to  the  good  faith  to  be  kept 
with  the  natives. 

The  fifth  that  no  taxes  shall  be  laid  except  for 
the  purpose  of  defense,  internal  improvement, 
education  and  the  support  of  the  local  goverment. 
Duties  and  port  charges  for  the  same  purposes  to 
be  imposed  from  time  to  time  at  the  discretion  of 
the  Society. 

«. 

The  sixth  that  all   elections  shall  be  bv  ballot, 

«< 

the  qualifications  to  be  fixed  by  the  Society. 

The  seventh  article  includes  the  Bill  of  Rights, 

O 

and  provides  for  religious  toleration,  trial  by  jury, 
prohibits  slavery,  and  may  be  described  as  contain- 
ing the  provisions  that    are  to  be  found    in    like 
instruments  in  most  of  the  States  of  the  Union. 
The  eighth  provides  for  amendments. 

At  the  same  meeting,  Mr.  Latrobe  reported  "  An 
Ordinance  for  the  Temporary  Government  of  the 
Territory  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,'  consisting  of 

*/  «.  O 

forty-five  articles  compiled  from   various   sources, 
the  idea  being  mainly  suggested  bv  Xathan  Dane's 

«/  i/ 

(so-called)   ordinance  for  the   Government  of  the 
Northwest  territory,  and  was  intended  to  meet  the 


34 

exigencies  of  a  comparatively  ignorant  people  begin- 
*  ning  a  political    existence.1      It    provided  for    the 

division  of  the  territory  into  townships;  enacted  a 
law  of  descents;  simplified  the  transfer  of  property 
by  deeds  and  wills;  provided  for  the  proof  of.  and 
the  recording  of  such  instruments;  made  both  real 
and  personal  property  assets  in  the  hands  of  the 
administration  subject  to  the  wife's  dower;  pro- 
vided for  the  appointment  of  guardians  and  the 
division  of  the  property  of  the  deceased  ;  for  the 
appointment  of  the  Society's  agent  who  was  to  be 
governor  for  two  years,  prescribing  his  duties;  for 
the  appointment  by  him  of  a  secretary,  of  justices 
of  the  peace  and  constables;  for  the  election,  by 
the  qualified  voters,  of  a  vice-agent,  two  counsel- 
lors, a  register,  a  sheriff,  a  treasurer  and  a  commit- 
tee on  new  emigrants ;  for  the  election  in  each 
township  of  three  select  men,  and  prescribing  the 
duties  of  all  elective  officers.  The  qualified  voters 
were  to  be  all  male  colored  people  twenty-one 
years  of  age,  who  had  subscribed  the  oath  to  sup- 
port the  constitution  and  held  land  in  their  own 
right,  or  who,  not  holding  land,  paid  a  tax  of  at 

1  The  members  of  the  board  present  when  the  Con>titntion  was  signed 
were:  George  Hoffman,  President;  John  II.  B.  Latrobe,  Corresponding 
Secretary;  John  Hoffman,  Treasurer;  James  Howard,  Recording  Secre- 
tary ;  Nicholas  Brice,  Nathaniel  Williams,  Alexander  Nesbit,  Vice- 
Presidents,  and  Moses  Sheppard,  Peter  Hoffman,  Solomon  Etting,  Charles 
Howard,  Charles  C.  Harper,  Sam'l  Baker,  John  J.  Ilarrod,  E.  <i.  E  Iring- 
ton,  Wui.  George  Read  and  Franklin  Anderson. 


35 

least  one  dollar  for  the  purposes  of  education  and 
the  support  of  government.  Xo  person  to  be  eligi- 
ble to  office  who  did  not  know  how  to  read  and 
write. 

The  ordinance  provided  also  for  a  Court  of 
monthly  sessions,  "to  have  jurisdiction  in  all  civil 
and  criminal  cases  not  committed  to  justices  of  the 
peace,"  for  the  clerk  and  his  duties,  and  for  juries; 
no  person  to  serve  as  juryman  unless  of  the  age  of 
twenty-live  years,  of  good  name  and  repute,  and 
knowing  how  to  read  and  write.  A  storekeeper  was 
to  be  appointed  by  the  agent,  a  surveyor,  an 
inspector  of  arms,  a  collector,  a  public  auctioneer 
and  a  librarian.  Public  schools  were  carefully 

v 

provided  for,  and  a  militia  ;  traffic  in  ardent  spirit 
was  prohibited,  as  well  as  traffic  generally  with 
the  natives,  without  a  license  from  the  agent,  except 
for  labor,  food  and  clothing  for  the  use  of  the 
emigrant.  Grants  of  land  were  to  be  made  to 
emigrants,  and  no  person  was  permitted  to  hold 
land  in  the  colony  who  did  not  reside  therein. 
The  pardoning  power  was  given  to  the  agent ;  and 
bed  and  bedding,  wearing  apparel,  cooking  utensils 
and  an  axe  and  hoe  were  exempted  from  execu- 
tion. 

The  ordinance  concluded  with  providing  for  the 
assumption  by  the  emigrants  of  their  own  govern- 
ment ;  ii})  to  which  time  all  commissions,  patents, 
deeds  of  public  lands,  rules  and  regulations  were 


IK, 


36 

to  be  in  the  name  of  the  Maryland  State  Coloniza- 

v 

tiun  Society. 

V 

The  letter  of  instructions  to  Dr.  Hall  was  sub- 
mitted alonj?  with  the  constitution  and  the  above 

~ 

ordinance,  was  approved,  and  directed  to  be 
recorded  in  full  in  the  letter  book  of  the  Society. 

i/1 

Along  with  the  instructions,  a  resolution  was 
adopted  directing  Dr.  Hall,  in  making  a  purchase 
of  territory,  to  use  every  effort  to  prevent  ardent 

«.    '  *- 

spirit  forming  a  part  of  the  consideration,  even 
though  an  increased  expenditure  of  other  articles 
would  be  required  in  their  stead.  On  this  point 
there  was  much  discussion  in  the  Board  of  Mana- 
gers, and  it  furnished  the  only  question  on  which 
a  vote  was  taken  bv  veas  and  navs  during  the 

«/        «.'  *. 

many  years  of  the  Society's  active  operations. 
There  were  members  who  refused  to  authorize  any 

*/ 

departure  from  the  constitutional  provision  -in 
regard  to  temperance;  others  again  were  unwilling 
to  put  all  that  had  been  done  at  hazard,  in  the 
face  of  Dr.  Hall's  assurance  that  no  instance  had 
been  known  of  a  purchase  of  land  from  the  natives 
without  rum.  The  last  prevailed  and  the  resolu- 
tion was  passed,  leaving  the  matter  to  Dr.  Hall's 
discretion. l 

1  When  the  vote  was  taken,  Messrs.  Hoffman,  Harper,  Brice,  Xesliit, 
Williams,  Howard,  Kdrin<;lon  and  Latrolte,  S,  voted  in  the  affirmative; 
and  Messrs.  Baker,  Etting,  Anderson  and  Sheppard,  4,  in  the  negative. 
Mr.  Read  wrote  a  letter  saying  that  lie  would  have  voted,  No. 


37 

At  last,  with  every   want   that   could   be  antici- 

«/ 

pated  supplied,  the  brig  Ann,  of  100  tons,  \V. 
C.  Langdon,  Master,  hauled  into  the  stream  to  take 
her  powder  on  board,  on  the  27th  of  November, 
1833,  and  the  flag  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  the 
nation  that  was  vet  to  be,  was  for  the  first  time 

«/ 

floated ;  and  on  the  28th,  Dr.  Hall,  with  the  Rev- 
erend John  Hersey,  who  had  been  appointed  assist- 
ant agent  a  few  days  before,  and  the  Reverend  J. 

* 

Leighton  Wilson  and  S.  R.  Wynkoop,  Mission- 
aries of  the  American  Board  of  Foreign  Missions, 
went  on  board.1  It  was  a  bleak  Xovember  dav 

*/ 

when  the  Ann  weighed  anchor,  and  in   old  times 

O 

the  clouded  skies  and  the  misty  rain,  and  the  fact 

t/ 

that  the  agent  had  to  be  carried  from  a  sick  bed  to 
his  berth  in  the  cabin  would  have  been  ominous  of 
failure. 

Deeply  impressed  with  the  grave  responsi- 
bilities they  had  assumed,  the  foregoing  narra- 
tive shows  how,  up  to  the  sailing  of  the  Ann, 

1  The  emigrants  on  the  Ann  were  Joshua  Stewart,  24  years  old,  his  wife, 
23  and  an  infant  son;  James  Stewart,  1(J ;  Pamela  Dellanott,  Mrs.  Stew- 
art's sister,  15  ;  William  Cassel,  25  ;  his  wife,  31  ;  one  son,  2  years  ;  Jacob 
Gross,  45 ;  his  wife,  33,  and  five  children,  the  eldest  10  years;  Nicholas 
Thompson,  40 ;  Eden  Wilson,  2'J,  and  John  Jones.  Of  these,  Stewart  was 
a  tailor  and  cooper ;  Cassell,  who  returned  to  the  United  States  after  some 
years  in  Africa,  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Hugh  Davy  Evans,  and  went 
back  to  Liberia  as  Chief  Justice,  a  sadler  ;  Jacob  <  iross,  a  tanner,  a  most 
excellent  man  in  all  respects;  Thompson  was  a  fanner  an  1  brickmaker ; 
Nelson,  a  rough  carpenter,  and  Jones,  a  boatman.  The  adults  all  signed 
the  Constitution  before  embarking. 

6 


38 

the   Board   of  Managers   had   tried   to   discharge 

I 

Looking  back  over  the  half  century  that  has 
since  gone  by,  it  would  seem  to  be  but  a  little  thing 
that  had  been  done,  even  though  the  Board  of 
Managers  had  been  made  the  agents  practically  of 
the  State  of  Maryland,  by  what  has  been  here 
detailed.  But  it  was  not  so  considered  at  the 
time,  and  the  entire  community  here  in  Baltimore 
looked  with  interest  and  anxietv  for  the  news  of 

m 

the  arrival  out  of  the  Ann.  She  was  a  poor 
sailer;  and  her  voyage  would  have  been  tedious 
enough,  had  not  a  brisk  north-wester  set  in  before 
she  had  cleared  the  river,  which  continued  down 
the  bay  and  across  the  Atlantic,  until  the  vessel 
arrived  off  St.  Ann's  shoals,  within  the  coast  influ- 
ences. Here  she  lay  for  days  without  other  move- 
ment than  a  dead  heavy  roll  in  the  swells  of  the 
sea;  and  until  Dr.  Hall's  impatience  to  reach  Cape 
Fal mas  before  the  rains  set  in,  led  him  to  embark 
in  a  lateen  sail  boat  that  he  had  provided  for  such 
an  emergency;  and  in  company  with  the  Reverend 
Mr.  Wilson,  a  sailor  and  two  of  the  emigrants, 
leave  the  Ann,  at  what  was  virtually  at  anchor, 
for  his  destined  port.  The  little  craft  was  soon 
wafted  out  of  sight  of  the  brig  and  after  midnight 
the  land  breeze  gave  quite  as  much  wind  as  was 
wanted  ;  and  on  the  morning  of  the  third  day  land 
was  made,  and  on  the  fifth  Monrovia  was  reached 


39 

and  the  agent  began  to  collect  recruits.  Public 
meetings  were  held,  and  in  a  few  days  thirty  volun- 
teers were  enrolled  ready  for  service.  The  Ann 
appeared  in  due  time,  and  on  the  sixth  day  from 
Dr.  Hall's  arrival,  sailed  with  all  on  board  to  Lee- 
ward, stopped  at  Bassa,  where  four  more  volun- 
teers were  obtained,  and  on  the  llth  of  February, 
came  to  anchor  in  the  roadstead  of  Cape  Palmas, 
seventy-five  days  from  Baltimore.  While  at  Mon- 
rovia Dr.  Hall  had  secured  the  services  of  George 
R.  McGill  and  James  M.  Thompson.  Mr.  McGill 
was  from  Baltimore,  had  had  a  large  experience 
during  some  years'  residence  in  Africa,  was  an  edu- 

»/ 

cated  man,  and  subsequently  became  assistant 
agent  at  Cape  Palmas.  Mr.  Thompson,  who  joined 
Dr.  Hall  to  act  as  secretary  of  the  colony,  was  a 
person  of  rare  qualifications  and  was  a  most  valu- 
able addition  ;  though,  perhaps,  Dr.  Hall's  most 
valuable  acquisition,  for  the  moment,  was  a  Cape 
Palmas  native,  who  happened  to  be  at  Monrovia 
when  the  Ann  arrived,  and  who  rendered  great 
assistance  in  the  negotiation  for  the  purchase  of 
the  territory. 

The  news  of  another  settlement  had  found  its 
way  to  Leeward,  and  the  people  of  Cape  Palmas 
were  not  unprepared  for  the  grand  Palaver  which 
was  held  on  the  12th. 

As  was  anticipated,  the  item  of  rum  was  insisted 
upon  as  a  sine  qua  non  by  the  natives,  when,  after 


40 


they  had  agreed  to  sell,  the  question  of  the  con- 
sideration came  up;  and,  for  a  time,  everything 
was  at  sea.  Dr.  Hall  was  peremptory,  however. 
After  enumerating  the  trade  goods  that  he  was 
willing  to  give  in  exchange  for  the  territory,  he 
said:  "Mv  master  gave  me  these  to  buy  a  home 

t/  c/  \i 

for  these  people.  If  you  take  what  I  offer,  good ; 
if  not,  I  go  my  way."  Finally,  he  proposed  to 
give,  as  a  substitute  for  many  articles  used  in 
English  and  German  trafficking  in  which  he  was 
deficient,  so  many  silver  dollars,  with  the  exact 
and  comparative  value  of  which  every  trader  on 
the  coast  was  familiar ;  and  this  being  accepted 
as  the  sun  declined,  the  Palaver  was  uset,"  as  the 
natives  termed  it,  and  the  morrow  was  fixed  for 
"making  book,"  or  executing  the  deeds;  and  on 
the  14th  of  February,  1834,  Parmah,  King  of  Cape 
Palmas ;  Baphro,  King  of  Grand  Cavally,  and 
Weak  Bolio,  King  of  Grahway,  on  the  one  part ; 
and  James  Hall,  agent  for  the  Maryland  State 
Colonization  Society,  on  the  other;  in  the  presence 
of  George  R.  McGill  and  James  M.  Thompson, 
completed  the  conveyance,  by  which  the  kings 
respectively  granted  and  sold  to  the  Maryland 
State  Colonization  Society  the  following  tract  of 
land  "of  which  we  are  at  this  time  lawfully  seized 

« 

by  right  of  possession  and  descent,  including  all 
the  rivers,  bays,  creeks,  anchorages,  timber  and 
mines  on  the  same,  that  is  to  say,  [here  follows  the 


41 

description,]1  reserving  so  much  of  said  territory  as 
is  now  under  cultivation  bv  the  inhabitants  thereof. 

tt 

or  such  as  is  occupied  by  us  or  our  descendants  as 
towns  or  villages,  with  the  right  of  passing  and 
repassing  up  and  down  all  rivers  and  creeks  and  of 

traversing  all  sections  of  the  country  not  inhabited 

j 

bv  colonists  of  the  said  Society ;  the  said  Society 

*>  «/  *• 

to  have  and  to  hold  the  said  land  for  its  special 
benefit  and  behoof  forever ;  and  we  do  agree  to 
warrant  and  defend  the  same  against  all  persons 
whatever ;  the  said  Society  to  have  the  power  by 
its  factors  or  agents  to  exercise  all  authority  in  the 
above-named  territory,  reserving  to  ourselves  and 
our  descendants  the  right  of  governing  and  settling 
all  palavers  among  our  own  people  so  long  as  we 
shall  see  fit  to  occupy  any  part  of  said  territory ; 
and  we  do  hereby  acknowledge  ourselves  as  mem- 

•J 

bers  of  the  Colony  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  so  far 
as  to  unite  in  common  defence  in  case  of  war  or 
foreign  aggression." 

The  deed  then  enumerated  the  trade  goods  form- 
ing the  consideration ;  and,  on  the  part  of  the 
Society,  it  was  agreed  that  within  one  year  from 

v    '  \J 

date  free  schools  should  be  established  for  the 
benefit  of  the  native  children,  one  at  Cape  Palmas, 
one  at  Grab  way,  and  one  at  Grand  Cavally.2 

1  For  the  deed  in  full,  see  Appendix. 

*The  performance  of  this  stipulation   was  afterwards  assumed   by   the 
American  Board  of  Commissioners  for  Foreign  Missions. 


42 

Cape  Pal  mas,  the  easternmost   of  the  territory 
conveyed  bv  the  three  kings  is  a  narrow  headland 

«.  •>  c? 

or  promontory,  about  seventy-five  feet  above  the 
level  of  the  sea,  once  evidently  an  island,  united  to 

b 

the  main  bv  a  sandv  beach,  or  isthmus,  from  which 

f  *s 

the   ground    ascends    gradually    to    the    interior. 

i 

Approached  from  the  north-west,  the  outline  of 
the  Cape  is  that  of  three  gentle  eminences ;  that 
nearest  the  sand  beach  being  occupied  in  part  bv 
the  conical  huts  of  King  Freeman's  chief  village 
which  overlooks  the  isthmus.  On  the  windward 
side  of  the  promontory,  it  is  washed  by  a  river 
navigable  for  several  miles  by  boats,  and  within 
the  bar  of  which  vessels  of  forty  or  fifty  tons  may 
be  anchored,  or  be  fastened  to  the  wharf,  which,  at 
a  later  day,  was  built  by  the  colonists.  Without 
a  mangrove  swamp  in  the  neighborhood,  and  with  a 
wide  extent  of  arable  land  beyond  the  sand  beach, 

• 

either  already   under  cultivation  or  offering  excel- 

•  O 

lent  agricultural  facilities,  nothing  that  had  been 
promised  by  Dr.  Hall  in  his  letter  to  Dr.  Ay  res 
was  wanting.  The  only  wonder  was  that  such  a 

tt 

site  for  a  colony  had  been  overlooked  on  the  voyage 

*  «/    ~ 

of  exploration  which  in  1816  resulted  in  the  selec- 
tion of  Cape  Mesarada.1 

1  In  a  letter  dated  April  24th,  ls:U,  Dr.  Hall  describes  the  purchase  as 
"resembling  the  lowlands  of  JIayti,  on  which  were  once  the  most  extensive 
sugar  and  cofiee  plantations  in  the  world."  On  the  27th  January,  1S35, 
the  Rev.  J.  L.  Wilson  writes,  "  The  location  has  been  a  very  fortunate  one, 


43 

The  first  question  that  offered  itself  after  the 
completion  cf  the  purchase,  was  the  site  of  the 
settlement.  Two  sites  presented  themselves;  one 
on  the  Cape,  the  other  on  the  mainland  beyond  the 
plain  already  mentioned.  Each  had  its  advan- 
tages. If  the  latter  were  chosen  the  emigrants 
could,  at  once,  have  their  farm  lots  located  and 
begin  to  cultivate  them  ;  while  on  the  Cape  there 
was  no  room  for  agricultural  improvement,  and 
small  town  lots  only  could  be  awarded  to  the  new 
comers. 

Dr.  Hall,  with  great  wisdom,  chose  the  Cape.  A 
settlement  on  the  mainland  would  be  at  the  mercy 
of  the  natives,  who  misrht,  at  anv  time  cut  it  off 

»/ 

from  the  landing  place  and  starve  it  into  submis- 
sion to  any  terms  they  might  choose  to  exact,  if 
they  had  preferred  its  plunder  to  its  destruction. 
Upon  the  other  hand,  the  settlement,  if  made,  as  it 
was,  upon  the  cape,  would  be  comparatively  inde- 

both  as  to  climate  and  a  fertile  soil,"  and  Mrs.  Wilson,  describing  the 
Mission  at  Fairhope,  close  by  the  Cape,  says,  "  There  are  but  few  stations, 
perhaps,  where  the  beauty  and  majesty  of  nature  are  more  harmoniously 
united.  On  the  south,  and  very  near  our  door,  the  sea  rolls  up  its  waves. 
On  the  east  we  have  a  beautiful  salt  lake,  extending  as  far  as  the  eye  can 
reach  leeward,  but  not  more  than  an  eighth  of  a  mile  in  width.  The  north 
presents  a  rich  and  verdant  plain,  through  which  winds  a  fresh  water 
stream,  that  we  can  trace  with  the  eye  a  great  distance  from  our  pia/.x.a. 
On  the  west  we  have  at  one  view  three  native  towns  and  the  colonial 
settlement."  Mr.  Burt,  the  supercargo  of  the  Eliza,  writes,  August  lii-, 
183o,  "  that  the  natural  advantages  are  greater  than  those  of  any  other  point 
on  the  coast.  The  anchorage  and  landing  are  decidedly  the  best  I  have 
seen." 


44 


pendent.  Access  to  the  ocean  would  be  open  ;  and 
the  artillery— consisting  of  one  six-pounder,  on  two 
wheels,  which  was  a  part  of  the  outfit  in  the  Ann — 
if  planted  on  the  central  eminence  which  com- 
manded the  native  town,  would  give  Dr.  Hall  an 
advantage  which  King  Freeman  fully  appreciated 
afterwards.  Nor  was  it  long  before  the  wisdom  of 
the  selection  was  made  apparent. 

On  the  16th  of  April,  1834,  the  emigrants  had 
recovered  from  the  acclimating  fever  without  loss, 
and  on  the  2nd  of  June  all  the  town  lots  but  one 
were  cleared,  fenced  and  planted.  A  large  kitchen 
and  rice  house,  twenty-four  feet  by  sixteen,  one  and 
a-half  stories  high,  had  been  built  of  African  mate- 
rials except  flooring  plank  and  doors.  Also  a 
stockade  fort  and  jail,  and  a  native  house  seventy- 
two  feet  by  sixteen,  for  the  reception  of  new  emi- 
grants, and  two  others  of  half  that  length  each. 
The  colonists  had  erected  twelve  framed  houses, 
and  four  were  already  shingled  and  occupied ;  all 
were  to  be  completed  within  a  month ;  and  two 
stone  buildings,  one  of  them  two  stories  in  height, 
were  going  up."  In  a  word,  things  were  already 
assuming  the  appearance  of  a  settlement  of  civi- 
lized men. 

On  the  20th  of  June,  Dr.  Hall  issued  a  procla- 
mation setting  apart  the  4th  of  July,  1834,  as  a 


45 

day  of  public  thanksgiving  and  prayer,  concluding, 
after   an    enumeration    of    the    many   reasons   fur 

ti 

thankfulness,  thus : 

"  Being  thoroughly  impressed  with  a  deep  sense 
of  favor  so  signally  bestowed  upon  us  by  the  great 
Disposer  of  Events,  I  do  hereby  appoint  Friday, 
the  fourth  of  July  next,  as  a  day  of  public  thanks- 
giving and  prayer,  and  I  do  request  that  all  the 
inhabitants  of  this  colony  will,  on  that  day,  cease 

«/  «/    / 

from  any  unnecessary  labor ;  and  that  they  will 
assemble  at  our  usual  place  of  public  worship 
and  there  join  in  rendering  fervent  thanks  to 
Almighty  God  for  His  abundant  mercies  and 
special  favor  bestowed  upon  us  individually  and  as 
a  community ;  that  we  repent  of  our  numerous 
offences  according  to  his  revealed  law  and  the  dic- 
tates of  our  own  consciences ;  that  we  earnestly 
supplicate  a  continuance  of  His  guardian  care  and 
providence,  and  that  he  may  so  endow  us  with  His 
Divine  influence  that  our  doings  may  be  acceptable 
to  Him,  beneficial  to  ourselves  as  individuals,  and 
alike  honorable  and  profitable  as  members  of  this 
infant  republic. 

"Done  at  Cape  Palmas  this  20th  day  of  June, 
1834. 

"JAMES  HALL,  Governor." 

,As  a  consequence  of  the  close  connection   now 
existing  between  the  State  of  Maryland  and  the 

7 


46 

State  Colonization  Society,  through  the  Commis- 
sioners of  the  State  fund,  the  annual  meetings  of  the 
Society  were  generally  held  at  Annapolis  during 
the  sessions  of  the  Legislature;  and  on  the  23rd  of 
January,  1836,  the  Society  met  in  the  senate  cham- 
ber, where  resolutions  were  offered  by  Mr.  J.  D. 
Maulsby,  of  Harford  ;  Colonel  Emory,  of  Queen 
Anne's,  of  the  Senate;  Colonel  Chapman,  President 
of  the  Senate ;  Colonel  Ely,  of  Baltimore  County, 
and  others,  approving  the  course  of  the  Board 
of  Managers,  urging  the  formation  of  auxiliaries 
throughout  the  State,  and  requesting  the  clergy  to 
take  up  collections  for  the  benefit  of  the  Society 
on  the  4th  of  July. 

By  the  29th  of  December,  the  colonists  had 
turned  their  attention  to  farming,  and  most  of  the 
farm  lots  had  been  cleared  and  fenced,  and  things 
generally  had  fallen  into  a  regular  routine. 

Circumstances  had,  for  some  time,  made  the 
agent  the  supreme  authority,  and  it  was  fortunate 
that  this  was  in  the  hands  of  a  practical  business 
man,  who  was  also  a  very  determined  one. 

After  the  sailing  of  the  Ann  for  home,  the 
King  of  Cape  Palmas,  believing  that  the  stock  of 
provisions  was  becoming  short,  prohibited  Dr.  Hall 
from  trading  with  any  tribe  but  his  own  for  rice; 
replying  to  the  governor's  reference  to  the  treaty 
of  purchase,  that  he,  King  Freeman,  would  do  as 


47 

he  pleased.  Whereupon  the  governor  told  him, 
''That  unless  the  people  of  Rocktown  were  per- 
mitted to  bring  in  provisions  the  colonists  would 
starve ;  that  they  were  as  willing  to  die  in  one 
way  as  in  another;  and  that  if  the  king  attempted 
to  stop  by  force  any  trade  coming  to  the  colony, 
or  intercepted  trade  goods  that  might  be  sent  for 
rice,  war  would  begin,  and  would  not  end  while 
one  American  was  left  alive  on  the  Cape,  or  until 
every  native  town  in  gun-shot  of  the  fort  had  been 
destroyed." 

Making  preparation  accordingly,  Dr.  Hall  des- 
patched his  boat,  the  following  morning,  as  usual, 
to  Rocktown ;  when  the  king  sent  word,  "  that  it 
was  all  a  mistake ;  and  that  he  was  sorry  for  the 
trouble  he  had  given!"  This  ended  all  difficulty  in 

«/ 

regard  to  traffic ;  and  Dr.  Hall  realized  the  practical 
importance  of  having  the  native  village  and  the 
landing  place  under  the  fire  of  his  artillery  of  a 
single  srun. 

O  O 

Nor  was  the  above  the  only  occasion  that  illus- 
trated the  value  of  the  very  meagre  battery  that 
Dr.  Hall  had  at  his  command.  The  natives  seemed 
to  be  constitutionallv  thieves.  "  Thev  would  slip 

%/  V 

their  hands,"  savs  Dr.  Hall,  "  through  the  watlinsr 

«/ 

of  the  houses  and  strip  the  bed-clothes  from  the 
sick."  When  he  became  strong  enough,  the  gov- 
ernor insisted  that  the  king  should  pay  the  value  of 
the  stolen  goods.  Presently,  however,  a  colonist 


48 

was  detected  with  cassada  stolen  from  a  native's 
field.  Naturally  enough,  King  Freeman  wanted  to 
know  why  the  governor  would  not  pay,  in  the  same 
way.  for  the  thefts  of  his  people.  "  I  have  a  law 
that  punishes  theft,"  explained  Dr.  Hall,  "and  you 
have  not,  although  it  is  in  your  power  to  make 
one."  Fully  comprehending  this,  and  learning  that 
the  a'overnors  law  came  from  America,  the  kin^ 

~  o 

determined  to  have  a  law  from  the  same  source ; 
and  when  Dr.  Hall  returned  to  the  United  States, 
Simleh  Ballah,  '•  the  king's  mouth,"  came  with  him 
to  procure  it.  In  the  meanwhile,  however,  the  king 
appointed  two  native  justices,  and  t\vo  constables  to 
detect  and  punish  theft. 

In  due  time,  Simleh  Ballah  appeared  before  the 
Board,  and  said,  "  I'm  Ballah,  head  man  for  King 
Freeman,  of  Cape  Palmas.  Him  send  me  dis  coun- 
try. I  come  for  peak  his  word.  Pose  him  savee 
book,  I  no  come.  He  make  book  and  send  him  ; 
but  'cause  he  no  savee.  make  book,  I  come  for  look 
country  and  peak  him  words."  He  then  described 
the  condition  of  his  people  before  the  colonists 
came,  and  the  advantages  of  the  settlement  to  the 
natives,  ending  by  saying  that  the  king  told  him 
to  beg  that  more  men  be  sent  "  for  make  home, 
make  farm,  for  bring  money,  and  for  make  all  little 
childs  savee  read  book  all  same  America  man.  I 
done." 


49 


Simleh  Ballah  was  a  stalwart,  very  black  man,  of 
a  good  presence,  with  the  inner  corners  of  his  two 
upper  teeth  filed  away  and  having  a  blue  line  tat- 
tooed from  the  root  of  his  hair  along  his  nose  down 
to  his  chin.  He  was  as  cool  and  collected  before 
the  Board  as  though  he  were  holding  a  palaver  at 
home.  A  brief  and  simple  code  was  prepared  for 
King  Freeman,  which  will  be  found  in  the  ap- 
pendix.1 

The    influence    of     the    colon v    and    the    irov- 

«, 

ernor    was    illustrated    on     another    occasion    in 
connection    with     a     trial     bv    the     Sassa    wood 

*/ 

ordeal. 

'Simleh  Ballah  was  a  fine  specimen  of  his  people.  While  in  Baltimore, 
his  residence  was  in  the  Secretary's  house;  and  during  the  preparation  of 
the  code,  its  articles  were  discussed  in  the  evenings,  when  the  messenger 
was  invited  to  the  parlor  and  held  a  palaver,  nothing  heing  accepted  with- 
out his  fully  understanding  and  assenting  to  it.  When  the  article  was 
read  declaring  that  no  man  should  have  more  than  one  wife  at  a  time,  Sim- 
leh Ballah  objected,  saying  that  he  had  six,  that  if  restricted  to  one  he 
would  take  the  youngest,  when,  as  no  ope  would  take  the  others,  they  must 
starve;  whereupon  postponing  the  consideration  of  the  particular  article, 
the  next  was  taken  up.  On  the  following  evening,  for  many  evenings  were 
consumed  in  the  discussions,  Simleh  Ballah  began  the  palaver,  by  siving 
he  had  "  looked  his  head"  (reflected,)  during  the  niirht,  and  was  quite 
ready  to  adopt  the  article,  in  a  qualified  way  ;  "  that  be  good  law,"  he  *aid, 
"for  his  pickaninny,  but  not  for  him.  He  would  say  to  his  pickaninny 
'you  want  wife,  look  good  you  no  hah  two  wife: '  good  law  lor  pickaninny, 
bad  law  for  Simleh  Ballah.''  The  idea  of  o-  yx>.«/  factn  legislation  was  thor- 
oughly understood  by  the  "  King's  mouth."  <  >n  another  occasion,  during 
a  palaver,  Simleh  Ballah  asked,  "  Mas-a  Tobe,"  as  he  called  the  Secretary. 
"God  man  [missionary]  say,  all  bad  men  he  burn,  you  tink  so?"  "The 
good  book  says  so,  Simleh,"  was  the  reply.  At  this  time  two  sous  of  the 


50 

All  sudden  deaths  of  the  middle-aged  and  active 
were  often  attributed  to  witchcraft,  when,  to  prove 
the  innocence  of  the  person  charged  by  the  Gree-gree 
man,  he  was  obliged  to  drink  large  quantities  of  a 
decoction  of  the  bark  of  a  poisonous  tree  called 
Sassa  wood.  If  he  survived,  he  was  deemed  inno- 
cent. One  of  the  head  men,  who  had  uniformly 
befriended  the  colony,  was  charged  with  bewitching 
the  family  of  a  rival,  and  condemned  to  the  ordeal. 
On  hearing  this,  Dr.  Hall  called  a  palaver  (a  nego- 
tiation with  the  king  and  head  men)  and  endeavored 
to  have  the  man  released :  but  altogether  in  vain. 
On  returning  home,  he  was  informed  that  if  a  supe- 
rior in  rank  were  to  take  the  accused  by  the  hand 

Secretary  were  in  the  room.  Looking  at  them,  Simleh  Ballah  said,  "  Massa 
Tobe,  Pose  your  pickaninny  he  be  bad?  you  burn  your  pickaninny,  all  men 
he  be  God  pickaninny,  God  no  burn  his  pickaninny."  Whereupon,  the  dis- 
cussion of  the  code  was  resumed,  and  the  theological  question,  which  is 
only  referred  to  as  an  indication  of  the  character  of  the  man's  mind,  was 
not  continued. 

The  following  is  the  letter  from  King  Freeman,  of  which  the  Reverend 
J.  Leighton  Wilson,  who  acted  as  amanuensis  for  the  king,  says,  that  it  is 
in  the  words  used  by  him  "as  nearly  literal  as  it  is  possible  for  me  to 
write  them." 

"  King  Freeman  to  the  Gentlemen  of  the  Colonization  Board  of  Balti- 
more, Xahaveo,  [greeting]  : 

"  Mr.  Wilson  he  be  hand  for  me,  and  Simleh  Ballah  be  mout  for  me 
for  make  dis  book ;  but  de  word  come  from  my  own  heart.  He  be  true. 
I  send  Simleh  Ballah  for  look  you  ;  he  eye  be  all  same  as  me  eye,  and  dat 
word  he  peak  be  all  same  he  come  out  me  own  mout.  You  do  Balla  good 
when  lie  lib  to  your  hand,  dat  be  all  same  you  do  good  for  King  Freeman. 
I  tank  you  for  dat.  Ballah  tell  me  you  hab  fine  country.  I  believe  what 
he  say,  cause  he  no  fit  for  tell  lie.  I  tank  you  berry  much  for  dem  cash 
you  send  me.  I  like  urn  plenty,  and  go  keep  urn  all  de  time.  But  I  tank 


51 

when  the  potion  was  about  to  be  administered,  he 
could  clear  him  ;  but  would  assume  the  responsi- 
bility and  be  liable  to  supply  his  place  or  pay  a 
heavy  tine.  On  hearing  this,  Dr.  Hall,  cripple  as 
he  was  at  the  time,  set  off  for  the  sand  beach  just 
as  the  wives  and  children  of  the  victim  were  beim? 

O 

driven  off  after  their  last  farewell.  About  five 
hundred  people  were  collected  in  a  hollow  square, 
in  the  middle  of  which  the  Gree-gree  man,  in  full 
panoply,  was  just  raising  a  two  gallon  pot,  filled 
to  the  brim  with  the  decoction,  to  the  lips  of  the 

* 

accused.  Breaking  through  the  square,  Dr.  Hall 
took  the  man  by  the  hand,  saying  as  he  did  so, 
that  he  would  satisfy  any  one  who  had  cause  of 

you  berry  much  for  dem  law  you  send  me.  He  be  good  law,  and  all  my 
people  go  do  him.  Pose  hab  dem  law  first  time,  I  no  go  do  fool  fash  all 
time.  Dis  time  I  go  make  all  my  people  do  dat  ting  what  you  law  tell  me. 
I  tank  you  plenty,  gentlemen,  for  dem  good  law.  I  tell  all  men  go  hear 
Misser  Wilson  talk  God  palaver,  and  yisserday  so  much  man  go  till 
plenty  hab  for  to  stand  outside  de  house. 

"Soon  Ballah  go  for  Merica  first  time  me  go  long  way  bush  and  tell  all 
man  say  he  must  make  fine  road  and  bring  plenty  trade  for  Cape  Palmas. 
Me  heart  tink  say  he  guin  do  him  soon. 

"  Me  hear  say  you  hab  plenty  slave  in  your  country,  me  hab  one  word 
for  peak  dem.  You  must  come  me  country  den  you  be  free  man  for  true. 
Dis  country  be  big  and  plenty  room  lib  here.  Pose  you  come,  I  peak  true, 
me  heart  be  glad  plenty  for  look  you. 

"  Pose  any  gentleman  want  come,  me  want  him  for  come  too.  Me  heart 
be  glad  for  see  dem  too  much. 

"  Me  word  be  done  now.  I  tank  you  berry  much  for  you  dash  and  you 
law.  I  go  lub  you  till  me  dead.  Me  send  you  one  county  chair  for  you 
look  at.  Me  go  put  pickaninny  country  word  for  you  see. 

"  A  good  child  loves  her  father,  he  loves  his  mother. 

"  KING  FKEEMAN,  alias  PA  NEMMAH." 


52 

complaint,  and  be  responsible  for  all  they  could 
prove  against  his  friend,  and  "  marched  him  off," 
to  use  Dr.  Hall's  words,  "  amid  the  mingled  shouts 
and  execrations  of  friends  and  persecutors." 

On  the  24th  of  December,  1834,  General  B.  C. 
Howard  was  elected  President  of  the  Society,  on 
the  death  of  Mr.  George  Hoffman. 

On  the  30th  of  December  it  was  resolved  that 
the  town  and  township  at  Cape  Palinas  shall  be 
called  "  Harper,"  in  honor  of  the  late  Robert 
Goodloe  Harper,  who  was  among  the  first  that 
advocated  the  cause  of  colonization  in  Maryland. 

*t 

and  who  devoted  to  its  illustration  and  support 
the  full  force  of  his  strong  and  comprehensive 
intellect. 

By  the  10th  of  January,  1835,  the  Board  of 
Managers  were  in  possession  of  the  first  map  of 
their  colony,  sufficiently  in  detail  to  permit  names 
to  be  affixed  ;  and,  not  unnaturally,  the  members  of 
the  Board  were  commemorated  so  far  as  the  mate- 
rial went. 

Before  long,  it  was  deemed  necessary  to  provide 
for  taking  care  of  the  movable  property  of  the 
Society,  and  for  the  protection  of  their  commercial 
interests,  which  was  done  by  a  supplement  to  the 


r>3 

ordinance  for  the  temporary  government,  passed 
.  on  the  iMtli  of  February,  183-5. 

The  Board  had  already  been  advised  that  ill- 
health  would  compel  Dr.  Hall  to  resign  his  com- 
mission as  governor;  and  believing  that  the  colony 
was  so  firmly  established  as  to  permit  him  to  leave 
its  affairs  in  other  hands,  he  applied  for  leave  to 
return  to  the  United  States.  This  was  granted,  of 
course,  but  with  great  reluctance  and  regret. 

Looking  to  the  circumstances  of  his  appoint- 
ment ;  to  his  presence  opposite  Cape  Palmas, 
with  the  accidental  possession  of  the  volume  con- 
taining the  description  of  it,  which  he  was  thus 
prepared  to  verify ;  to  his  letter  to  Dr.  Ayres, 
which  reached  the  Board  of  Managers  wrhen  they 
were  hesitating  in  regard  to  the  site  of  a  new  set- 

O  O 

tlement ;  to  his  arrival  in  Baltimore  on  a  wholly 
distinct  errand  when  there  was  difficulty  in  the 
choice  of  the  leader  of  the  expedition  which  his 
letter  had  so  largely  contributed  to  promote  ;  to 
his  most  remarkable  fitness  for  the  work,  and  to 
his  willingness  to  return  on  the  instant  to  Africa 
to  undertake  it ;  the  Board  of  Managers  felt  that 
in  parting  with  Dr.  Hall  they  lost  one  who  had 
entered  into  their  service  in  a  manner  that  might 
be  well  regarded  as  providential. 

Uncertain,   for  the   moment,  as    to   their    future 
course  touching  Dr.    Hall's    successor,    the  Board 

8 


54 

accepted  the  offer  of  Mr.  Oliver  Holmes,  Jr.,  of 
Baltimore,  as  special  agent,  to  proceed  to  Africa 
and  receive  from  Dr.  Hall  the  property  of  the 
Society,  and  to  act  as  temporary  governor.  This 
he  did  on  the  4th  of  February,  1836. 

The  temporary  character  of  Mr.  Holmes'  appoint- 
ment, however,  made  it  necessary  to  provide  for 
a  successor  to  Dr.  Hall,  as  agent  and  governor. 
Hitherto  white  men  onlv  had  had  charge  of  colo- 

V 

nies  from  the  United  States  in  Africa.  The  Board 
were  satisfied  that  the  time  had  now  come  to  place 
a  colored  man  in  charge;  which  would  relieve  the 
colonists  from  the  imputation  of  being  still  slaves 
in  Liberia,  under  a  white  overseer,  and  at  the  same 
time  vindicate  the  belief  of  the  Board  in  the  com- 
petency of  the  emigrants  to  exercise  with  credit 
the  functions  of  government.  After  mature  delib- 
eration they  selected  Mr.  John  B.  Russwurm,  of 
Monrovia,  as  Governor  of  Maryland  in  Liberia ; 
nor  had  they  ever  any  occasion  to  regret  their 
choice.  His  salary  was  fixed  at  $1,000,  and  $oO(J 

«,' 

was  added  for  the  maintenance  and  support  of  his 
household  and  estate  as  governor. 

It  had  not  been  long  after  Dr.  Hall's  arrival 
at  Cape  Palmas,  in  1834,  before  he  pressed  upon 
the  Board  of  Managers  the  importance  of  a  coin 
for  the  colony,  suggesting  something  like  the  Hay- 


55 

ticn  coin,*  so  much  below  the  standard  Spanish 
dollar  that  it  would  not  be  exported.  "At  present," 
he  said,  "  every  colonist,  in  order  to  purchase  pro- 
visions or  pay  a  native  for  work,  is  necessitated  to 
have  on  hand  a  full  assortment  of  merchandise." 
There  were  many  difficulties  in  regard,  to  a  coin, 

V 

however,  and  nothing  was  done  at  the  time ;  but 
it  occurred  to  the  Board  of  Managers  that  as  tobacco 
had  been  made  a  currency  in  Maryland ;  cotton. 

V  */ 

for  the  production  of  which  the  soil  was  well 
adapted,  might  be  made  the  currency,  for  the  time 
being,  of  Maryland  in  Liberia ;  and,  accordingly, 

V  J        C-        ' 

the  Board  passed  an  ordinance  "  to  promote  the 
growth  of  cotton  in  the  colony  of  Maryland  in 
Liberia;  to  afford  a  circulating  medium  for  the 
same,  and  to  provide  for  the  general  welfare 
thereof."  The  ordinance  provided  for  an  inspector 
of  cotton,  made  clean  cotton  a  legal  tender,  at  ten 
cents  a  pound,  and  provided  in  detail  the  machin- 
ery required  to  give  the  ordinance  effect.1 

- 

The  Board  of  Managers  had  more  than  once 
requested  the  government  to  order  vessels  of  the 
United  States,  on  the  African  station,  to  visit  Cape 
Palnias  instead  of  being  confined  to  Monrovia;  and 
in  December,  1836,  the  Potomac  cast  anchor  in  the 

1  This  ordinance  never  went  into  effect.  By  the  time  a  sufficient  quan- 
tity of  cotton  had  been  raised  in  the  colony,  another  plan  was  adopted  that 
obviated  its  necessity. 


56 

harbor,  adding  greatly  to  the  prestige  of  the  colony 
with  the  natives,  who  had  been  altogether  incredu- 
lous as  to  the  Americans  ever  having  any  large 
vessels  of  war. 

Captain  Nicolson's  report  was  most  favorable, 
"Already,"  he  says,  *'  with  a  population  of  only 
one  hundred  and  ninety-one  colonists,  thev  have  in 

«.''  V 

cultivation  forty-seven  farms,  laid  out  on  each  side 

\> 

of  the  Maryland  Avenue,  beyond  Latrobe,  chiefly 

of  five  acres,  and  a  farm  of  fifty  acres,  intended  as 

•i 

a  model.     Thev  have   a  crood  road   of  four  or  five 

*/'  O 

miles  in  different  directions.  Mr.  Wilson,  at  the 
missionary  establishment  in  Latrobe,  has  under  his 

»/ 

tuition  about  one  hundred  of  the  native  children 
and  a  few  adults.1 

In  1837,  Mr.  John  II .  B.  Latrobe  was  elected 
President  of  the  Society,  an  office  that  he  held 
until  elected  President  of  the  American  Coloniza- 
tion Society  in  1853. 

v 

On  the  29th  of  September,  the  Board  passed  an 
ordinance  for  the  redress  of  injuries  in  the  colony 
of  Maryland  in  Liberia.  This  ordinance,  which 

nt 

occupies  105  pages  of  the  Book  of  Laws,  printed 

1  Before  Captain  Nicolson  left  Cape  Palmas  he  sent  to  the  Governor  .1 
six-pounder  grenade  with  the  carriage  complete,  one  barrel  common  pow- 
der, 400  musket  ball  cartridges,  eighteen  stand  of  grape  for  six-pounders, 
and  other  most  acceptable  ammunition  and  implements. 


57 

bv  the  Board  of  Managers,  was  prepared  with 
great  care  and  after  much  consideration  by  Mr. 
Hugh  Davy  Evans,  as  well  as  one  for  the  better 
administration  of  justice,  and  another  for  the 

• 

better  regulation  of  property  in  the  colony  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia.  All  demonstrated  the  legal 
knowledge  and  great  practical  skill  of  the 

author.     The  preparation  of  these  ordinances  was 
1     L 

§a  labor  of  love  with  Mr.  Evans,  to  which  he 
devoted  his  whole  time ;  nor  can  this  occasion  be 
permitted  to  pass  without  paying  a  tribute  to  one 
of  the  best,  the  most  honest  and  the  purest  mem- 
bers of  the  Baltimore  bar.1 

During  the  agency  of  Mr.  Russwurm,  the  want 

O  «/ 

of  a  circulating  medium  was  not  less  felt  than  Dr. 
Hall  had  found  it,  and  on  the  10th  of  October, 

1837,  the  Board  of  Managers  resolved  that  for  the 

° 

purpose  of  creating  a  circulating  medium  for  the 
colony,  and  in  view  of  the  disadvantages  to  which 
the  colonists  are  subjected  for  want  of  one,  and  it 
being  thought  that  for  the  present  a  metallic  one 
could  not  be  kept  in  the  Colony,  there  shall  be 
prepared  notes  of  the  Society  to  the  amount  of 


3  When  Maryland  in  Liberia,  was  absorbed  in  Liberia  proper,  it 
became  subject  to  the  laws  uf  the  latter  State,  and  Mr.  Evans'  work  ccix-il 
to  be  valuable  as  binding  authority ;  but  it  may  still  be  referred  to  as  a 
monument  of  knowledge  and  skill  in  the  Library  of  the  Maryland  His- 
torical Society. 


58 

eii>-ht    hundred    dollars,    afterwards    increased    to 

° 

j  $1,450,   be   signed    by    the    President,   and    before 

»  issued,  countersigned  by  the  Governor  of  Maryland 

in  Liberia,  which  shall  be  receivable  at  the  govern- 
ment store  for  goods  purchased  there. 


In  order  to  make  this  paper  currency,  which  was 
prepared  in  sums  of  5,  10,  25,  50  cents  and  one 
dollar,  acceptable  to  the  natives,  the  Board  of 
Managers  were  aided  by  a  custom  which  required 
a  purchaser  to  dash,  or  make  a  present  of,  a  por- 
tion of  the  article  boutrht,  to  each  of  the  bv- 

•/ 

standers.  It  did  not  take  the  natives  long  to  find 
out,  that  bv  selecting  their  own  time  for  realizing 

«/  O 

these  notes  at  the  public  store,  they  could  save  the 
objectional  dashes.  To  help  them  to  understand 
the  value  of  the  notes,  a  head  of  tobacco  was 
engraved  on  the  live-cent  one,  a  chicken  on  the 

o  * 

ten-cent,  a  duck  on  the  twentv-live  cent,  two  ducks 

V 

on  the  fifty-cent  one,  and  a  goat  was  on  the  dollar 
note.  These  notes  constituted  the  currency  of  the 

colon v  for  years.1 

«/         «/ 


1  It  had  been  intended  to  place  a  fac-siniile  of  one  of  these  notes  in  the 
Appendix,  and  the  State  Society's  printer,  or  his  successor,  rather,  who 
occupied  the  old  .stand  and  had  fallen  into  possession  of  all  the  former's  stock, 
was  applied  to,  in  the  feeble  hope  that  at  the  end  of  lifty  years,  the  blocks 
from  which  the  animals  and  the  head  of  tobacco  had  been  printed,  might 
still  be  in  existence:  but  it  so  happened  that  within  a  week  only  of  the 
application  they  had  been  destroyed  as  worthless! 


59 


On  the  loth  of  January,  1841,  the  Board  of 
Managers  appointed  Dr.  Hall  their  general  agent, 
an  office  to  which  he  added  that  of  editor  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Journal ;  and  it  is 
due  to  him  to  say  that  when  the  Board  became 
interested  in  African  trade  on  its  own  account,  as  a 
means  of  increasing  its  resources,  its  unusual  sue- 

O 

cess  was  largely,  if  not  altogether,  due  to  the  expe- 
rience, industry  and  integrity  of  their  general  agent. 

•/  t,  O 

Things  had  bv  this  time  settled  down  at  Cape 

•/ 

Palmas  into  the  routine  of  a  well-regulated  com- 
munity, and  was  attracting  settlers  whose  relations 

•/    * 

were  not  in  all  respects  provided  for  by  the 
original  ordinance.  Further  legislation  became 
necessary,  and  on  the  2nd  of  February,  1841,  ua 
declaratory  ordinance  touching  the  sovereignty  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia,"  was  enacted. 

v 

This,  after  reciting  the  facts  connected  with  the 
founding  of  the  settlement,  declares  that  under  the 


10 

fc 

H 

10 


MARYLAND  STATE  COLONIZATION  SOCIETY. 


Baltimore, 

10 


,  1837. 


\    _^ 

\ 


10 


Thin  not?  icill  be  receired  for 

TEN   CENTS   at  /!»•   < im-ernmfiit  Store,   in  H<tr/,n; 
Maryland  in  Liberia,  Africa,  in  payment  for  c/oods. 

G'lttrnor  nf  Mil.  in  I.ili'rin.  f'r-f'l  Mil.  .'•V<r^  Col.  Soi-ir.fy.     \ 


0 


H 
CD 


Constitution  of  1833,  Maryland  in  Liberia  was, 
and  of  right  ought  to  be,  sovereign  and  indepen- 
dent of  all  authority  not  provided  therein ;  that 
the  constitution,  and  the  laws,  ordinances  and 
treaties  made  under  its  authority  were  the  supreme 
law  of  the  land,  to  which  all  persons  within  the 
territory  ought  to  conform  ;  that  emigrants  from 

tt 

the  United  States  and  all  persons  born  in  the  ter- 
ritory owed  allegiance  to  the  government  of  Mary- 

r-  O  */ 

land  in  Liberia  and  to  none  other;  that  residents 
merely,  owed  a  temporary  allegiance,  without 
prejudice  to  the  rights  of  the  natives  under  the 
deeds  from  their  kings  and  headmen,  or  treaties 
with  them.  The  ordinance  then  declared  who 
should  be  regarded  as  citizens ;  and  enacted  that 
the  Government  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  held  its 

V 

right  of  government  and  property  in  trust  for  the 
benetit  of  the  citizens  ;  and  that  no  other  person  or 
persons  in  America  had  any  beneficial  interest  in 
the  government  or  property,  which  ought  to  be 
held  and  exercised  for  the  purpose  aforesaid. 

The  reason  for  the  above  ordinance  was  a  diffi- 
culty that,  in  1838,  grew  out  of  a  tine  imposed  by  a 
court-martial  upon  a  colonist  employed  as  a  teacher 
in  the  Congregational  Mission.  The  question  of 
the  sovereignty  of  the  government  of  the  colony 
was  then  discussed  with  one  of  the  Secretaries  of 
the  American  Board  of  Commissioners  for  Foreign 


61 

Missions,  who  visited  Baltimore  for  the  purpose; 
when  the  views  expressed  in  the  above  ordinance 
were  maintained,  and  were  referred  to  in  a  letter 
from  the  American  Board,  dated  July  llth,  in  which 
it  was  "  recognized  that  the  agents  of  the  State  So- 

O  O 

ciety  at  Cape  Palmas  were  the  government  of  the 
territory  ceded  to  the  Society  by  the  native  owners 
and  occupants ;  and  that  the  missionaries  and  the 
assistant  missionaries  of  the  Board  of  Missions, 
residing  in  the  territory,  owed  the  same  sort  of 

t    ' 

deference  to  the  government  thus  instituted  as 
would  be  expected  from  foreigners  in  America." 

In  1841,  a  similar  question  arose  in  regard  to  the 
right  of  Governor  Russwurm  to  require  civilized 
young  men,  in  the  employment  of  the  Mission 
from  Cape  Coast  and  Sierra  Leone,  to  perform 
military  duty.  When  the  matter  was  brought 

«/  V 

before  the  Board  of  Managers,  the  Governor's 
ri^ht  was  maintained. 


Looking  back,  after  the  lapse  of  so  many 
years,  we  may  regret  the  necessity  of  raising  this 
particular  question,  which  led  ultimately  to  the 
removal  of  the  Congregational  Mission;  but  the 

<^D        c~>  * 

condition  of  the  colony  seemed  to  admit  of  no  alter- 
native. It  is  well  stated  by  the  committee.  "  The 
colony,"  it  says,  "being  very  small  in  numbers, 
with  imperfect  means  of  defence,  and  surrounded 
9 


62 

by   barbarian    tribes,   is    continually    exposed   to 
I  assaults   or   invasion,  which  can  only  be  repelled 

by  every  resident  exerting  his  utmost  energy  in 
defence  of  the  common  weal.  No  one,  therefore,  of 
a  small  colony  can  be  exempted  from  that  mili- 
tary training  which  alone  prepares  a  body  of  civi- 
lized and  disciplined  men  to  defend  themselves 
against  a  more  numerous  but  undisciplined  enemy. 


T       " 


Another  occasion  for  asserting  the  dignitv  of  the 

o  ~        «/ 

colonial  government,  grew  out  of  an  appeal  by  the 
agent  of  the  Congregational  mission  to  the  com- 

o  o       o 

mander  of  the  United  States  ship  Vandalia,  for 
redress  against  King  Freeman,  one  of  whose  peo- 
ple was  charged  with  having  robbed  the  mission ; 
when  an  officer  was  sent  ashore,  who,  after  a 
drum-head  court  martial,  compelled  the  king  to 
compensate  the  damage  —  the  agent  refusing  per- 
emptorily to  resort  to  the  colonial  court  for  redress. 
As  a  matter  of  course,  the  Board  of  Managers 
protested  against  the  proceeding  to  the  American 
Board ;  when  the  latter  at  once  admitted  that 
an  apology  was  due  to  the  Society  and  to  Gov- 
ernor Russwurm ;  attributing  the  occurrence  to 
the  absence  of  the  chief  of  the  mission,  and  the 
recent  arrival  and  ardent  temperament  of  the  party 
committing  the  offence. 

It  is  interesting  to  examine  the  record  of  the 
proceedings  of  the  agent  and  Council  at  this  period, 


63 

to  observe  how  wrell  the  interior  government  of  the 
colony  had  been  provided  for,  and  how  smoothly 
the  machinery  was  working ;  for  example  : — 

On  the  13th  of  April,  1839,  "  road  masters  were 
appointed,  to  have  the  same  power  as  the  select 
men.  Fines  were  imposed  for  non-attendance  at 
quarterly  parades.  On  the  9th  of  December,  pre- 
parations were  made  for  celebrating  the  anni- 
versary of  the  colony,  February  22nd.  Six  guns 
were  to  be  fired  at  sunrise  to  denote  the  age  of  the 
colony ;  thirteen  at  noon  to  denote  the  original 
number  of  the  United  States  ;  and  the  same  number 
at  Mount  Tubman,  a  settlement  at  the  end  of  the 
Maryland  Avenue,  five  miles  inland.  At  the  same 
meeting,  Captain  Anthony  Wood,  of  the  Latrobe 
Artillery,  was  appointed  major  of  the  military 
forces  of  Maryland  in  Liberia ;  and  an  order  was 
passed  that  the  committee  on  the  subject  meet  on 
New  Year's  Day  to  award  the  premium  to  the 
owner  of  the  best  cultivated  farm. 

On  the  28th  of  August,  1840,  to  shoot  at,  or  kill 
deer  or  other  game  on  the  Sabbath  was  prohibited, 
under  a  penalty  of  ten  dollars,  one  half  to  the 
informer. 

These  references  are  of  interest  in  the  same  way 
that  one  is  interested  in  watching  the  processes  of 
bees  in  their  glass  hives. 

\ 

Among  other  resolutions  of  the  C4overnor  and 
Council,  about  this  time,  was  one  imposing  a  duty 


64 

on  imported  articles  and  establishing  an  anchor- 
age charge.  So  far  as  it  fixed  the  import  duty, 
it  was  revoked  by  the  Board  of  Managers.  The 
subject  was  a  very  important  one,  requiring  grave 
consideration  and  involving  the  preparation  of  a 
system  full  of  details,  and  to  be  adopted  only  after 
mature  deliberation.  In  withholding  their  assent 
the  Board,  however,  promised  to  take  up  the  sub- 
ject at  an  early  day. 

In  their  10th  Annual  Report  the  Board  of  Man- 
agers say,  "that  at  the  end  of  seven  years  they  can 
speak  with  confidence  of  the  temperance  principle, 
which  thev  had  made  fundamental  in  the  constitu- 

V 

tion ;  and  they  firmly  believe  that,  under  Provi- 
dence, the  remarkable  success  that  has  attended 
the  settlement — a  success  to  which  history  affords 
no  parallel — the  harmony  that  has  prevailed 
between  the  colonists  and  the  natives,  are  to  be 
attributed  to  the  strict  observance  of  the  colonial 
law  in  this  respect." 

In  1843,  the  colony  had  begun  to  attract  visitors, 
who  claimed  exemption  from  its  laws ;  and  on  the 
:Mth  of  January  an  ordinance  was  enacted  "  for 
the  better  maintenance  of  the  authority  of  the 

K 

government -of  Maryland  in  Liberia,"  which  pro- 
vided that  all  persons  above  the  age  of  fourteen 
years  who  should  arrive  in  the  colony,  except  com- 


65 


manclers,  officers,  and  other  persons  attached  to 
vessels  of  war,  and  the  masters,  supercargoes  and 
officers  and  seamen  of  merchant  vessels,  and  such 
passengers  as  merely  called  with  no  intention  of 
remaining,  should  report  themselves  within  ten 
days  after  their  arrival  to  the  colonial  secretary : 
and  the  ordinance  went  on  to  provide  the  mode  of 
carrying  the  law  into  effect,  and  enacted  further, 

i/ 

a  mode  by  which  colored  persons  might  become 
citizens. 

The  above   ordinance  is  referred  to  as  showing 
that   the  authority  of  the  Board  of  Managers  in 

V 

Africa  was  not  always,  in  the  beginning,  admitted 
as  frankly  as  it  had  been  by  the  missionary  board 
in  the  discussion  already  spoken  of. 

In  1843,  a  light-house,  that  had  been  erected  of 
stone  not  long  after  the  settlement  on  the  Cape, 
was  furnished  with  an  apparatus  from  England,  the 
light  being  visible  twenty  miles  at  sea.  Before 
this,  light  had  been  supplied  by  an  iron  vessel 
filled  with  palm  oil  to  feed  a  wick,  until  some- 
thing better  was  obtained ;  very  much  in  the  same 
way  that  the  headlands  of  Great  Britain  were 
lighted  by  fires  kept  burning  in  iron  vessels  in  the 
olden  times. 

On  the  second  of  November,  1843,  the  Board  of 
Managers  complied  with  their  promise,  and  sent  to 


66 

the  colony  an  ordinance  "to  raise  a  revenue  for  the 
support  of  government  in  the  colony  of  Maryland 
in  Liberia,  and  for  other  purposes."  This,  before 
going  into  operation,  was  submitted  to  Governor 
llusswurm  and  its  provisions  were  made  known  to 
the  colonists.  These  desired  that,  "if  any  duty 
was  to  be  levied,"  it  should  be  upon  sales  and  not 
upon  imports.  On  this  point  the  Board  would  not 
yield.  Such  a  duty  as  the  colonists  preferred  was 
essentially  an  excise,  requiring  for  its  enforce- 
ment a  power  to  collectors  to  make  searches,  admin- 
ister oaths,  and  exercise  authority  inconsistent  with 
liberty. 

The  time  spent  in  these  discussions,  however, 
was  not  wasted.  A  tariff  of  duties  was  at  last 
tixed  which  was  satisfactory,  when  accompanied 
with  a  warehouse  system,  which  obviated  the  objec- 
tion that  only  those  who  could  afford  to  advance 
the  duties  could  engage  in  trade. 

Finally,  an  ordinance  was  passed  on  the  9th  of 
July,  1846.  The  forms  were  those  in  use  in  the 
United  States,  adapted  to  the  circumstances  of  the 
colony.  In  the  preparation  of  both  ordinances 
the  Board  of  Managers  had  the  assistance  of  a 
member  of  the  committee,  Dr.  James  H.  McCul- 
loh,  long  deputy-collector  in  the  Baltimore  custom 
house,  a  gentleman  distinguished  not  only  for  his 
moral  worth,  but  for  his  great  learning  and 


67 

research.  It  is  not  necessary  to  enter  into  the 
details  of  a  tariff  which  has  long  since  ceased  to 
exist,  or  to  have  other  interest  than  as  showing 
the  nature  of  the  duties  of  the  Board  of  Managers 
while  executing  their  sovereign  powers  in  promoting 
the  happiness  and  prosperity  of  a  people  which 
finally  became  an  independent  nation  under  their 
auspices. 

The  revenue  from  the  tariff  for  the  first  seven 
months  after  it  went  into  operation  was  $500,  and 
the  following  year's  estimate  was  £1,200. 

In  their  report  for  1845,  the  Board  of  Managers 
were  able  to  announce  that  the  Society  was  out  of 
debt,  awarding  to  Dr.  Hall,  the  home  and  general 

O  O 

agent,  the  credit  due  to  the  judicious  economy  on 
both  sides  of  the  Atlantic  that  had  produced  this 
result. 

In  1845,  the  State  of  Maryland  had  not  extri- 

•; 

cated  herself  from  the  condition  in  which  she  was 
placed  by  the  failure,  in  1837,  to  meet  the  interest 
on  her  public  debt ;  and  on  the  18th  of  January, 
1845,  the  chairman  of  the  committee  of  ways  and 

V 

means,  of  the  House  of  Delegates,  wrote  to  the 
President  of  the  Society  to  know,  whether  the 

*/ 

annual  contribution  of  £10,000  could  not  be  dis- 
pensed with.  "There  is  a  disposition,"  the  chair- 
man says,  "to  convert  it  from  that  object  to  the 


68 

payment  of  interest  on  the  public  debt,  and  the 
committee  are  directed  to  enquire  into  the  expe- 
diency of  doing  so.  If  possible  to  spare  the  money, 
do  not  thro\v  any  impediments  in  the  way.  The 
public  mind  is  much  tranquillized  by  these  small 


savings." 


In  reply,  after  enumerating  the  sources  of  in- 
come on  which  the  Society  relied,  independent  of 
the  State's  appropriation,  and  going  somewhat  in 
detail  into  what  had  been  accomplished,  exceeding 
anything  that  had  ever  been  effected,  not  only  in 
Africa,  but  even  in  America ;  and  dwelling  upon 
the  fact,  that  it  was  in  reliance  that  the  legislation 
of  1831  would  not  be  interfered  with,  that  the  colo- 
nists left  their  old  homes  to  establish  new  ones  in 
Africa, — the  President  concluded  by  stating  "  that 
he  could  not  believe  that  any  saving  that  could 

V 

be  effected  by  diverting  the  appropriation  would 
tranquillize  the  public  mind  as  much  as  it  would 
be  disturbed  by  the  loss  of  the  colony  upon  whose 
future  availability  the  prosperity  of  Maryland 
might  most  materially  depend."1 

It  was  with  a  feeling  of  great  relief  that 
the  Board  of  Managers  saw  the  Legislature 
adjourn  without  affecting  the  law  of  1831.  In 
truth,  however,  there  was  less  risk  than  had 
been  imagined.  When  the  matter  came  to  be 

1  This  letter  was  written  forty  years  ago,  when  public  sentiment  was  very 
different  from  what  it  is  to-dav. 


69 


talked  over  among  the  members  of  the  Legislature, 
as  was  afterwards  ascertained,  the  very  weakness 
of  the  colonists  became  a  power  when  it  appealed 
to  the  good  faith  and  honor  of  Maryland. 

O  •; 

Year  after  year  collections  had  been  made  for 
the  especial  object  of  building  a  vessel  for  the  use 
of  the  Society,  but  the  amount  had  been  compara- 
tively insignificant ;  nor  did  the  idea  take  a  prac- 
tical shape  until  after  Dr.  Hall  became  the  general 
agent  of  the  Society ;  when  on  the  25th  of  February, 
1845,  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Trading  Company 
was  incorporated,  "  to  carry  on  and  maintain  a  line 
of  packets  between  Baltimore  and  Liberia,  and  for 
carrying  on  lawful  commerce  on  the  coast  of 
Africa."  As  soon  as  the  company  was  organized, 
the  State  Society  made  over  to  it  these  collections, 
and  agreed  to  guarantee  an  amount  of  freight  and 
passage  money  annually  of  $2,000.  This,  with 
prior  subscriptions,  sufficed ;  and  on  the  9th  of 
November,  1846,  the  Board  of  Managers  attended 
the  launch  of  one  of  the  handsomest  vessels  that 
ever  sailed  from  the  port  of  Baltimore,  duly  chris- 
tened the  Liberia  Packet.1 

About  this  time  the  Board  of  Managers  were 
asked  to  receive  as  an  emigrant  a  person  who  had 

1  The  Liberia  Packet  made  12  voyages  to  Cape  Palmas.     She  was  found 
to  be  too  small  for  the  increasing  trade  and  was  sold  after  the  last  voyage. 

10 


70 

been  convicted  of  a  minor  offence  and  pardoned  on 
condition  of  emigration  to  Maryland  in  Liberia; 
and  although  their  sympathies  were  with  the 

O  « 

individual,  under  some  peculiar  circumstances,  the 
Board  refused  the  application.  To  admit  that  the 
punishment  of  crime  could  be  condoned  by  becom- 
ing a  colonist,  would  place  the  colony  in  a  light 
that  the  Board  of  Managers  could  not  permit. 

Although  it  had  been  deemed  necessary  to  o;ive 

~  «/ 

to  the  agent,  in  the  early  days  of  the  colony,  cer- 
tain judicial  powers  ;  yet  it  was  necessary  after  the 
growth  of  the  settlement  in  numbers  and  its  exten- 
sion inland,  to  separate  the  functions  of  the  execu- 
tive and  judiciary ;  and  on  the  18th  of  May,  1847, 
an  ordinance  to  that  effect  was  enacted  ufor  the 
better   administration  of  justice  in  the   colony  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia,"  providing  for  the  appoint- 
ment by  the  State  Society  of  a   chief  justice,  to 
have  all  judicial  power  and  authority  not  expressly 
prohibited  or  conferred  upon  others;    for  a  court 
of    monthly   sessions ;    for   the   clerk,    prescribing 
his  duties;    for  an  orphans'  court,   with  the  chief 
justice  its  chief  judge  and  the  register  of  the  colony 
its  clerk ;  for  fixing  the  commissions  of  adminis- 
trators, guardians  and  insolvents'  trustees  ;  making 
the  chief  justice  presiding  officer  of  the  court  of 
monthly  sessions;  requiring  justices   of  the  peace 
to  send  parties  convicted  of  any  offence  to  the  chief 


71 

ju.stice  for  sentence  to  labor  on  the  public  farm; 
providing  for  the  absence  of  the  chief  justice;  for 
vacancies  in  his  office;  for  two  associate  judges  of 
the  court  of  monthly  sessions  ;  for  admitting  prac- 
titioners of  law  and  for  the  repeal  of  inconsistent 
ordinances ;  and  on  the  6th  of  September,  follow- 
ing, William  Cassell  was  appointed  chief  justice.1 

On  the  14th  of  August,  in  the  same  year,  the 
Board  directed  that  ''the  ordinances  passed  up  to 
that  date,  and  printed  by  John  D.  Toy,  under  the 
supervision  of  Hugh  Davy  Evans,  Esquire,  should 
be  confirmed  as  the  laws  of  Maryland  in  Liberia, 
and  that  the  book  containing  them,  entitled,  "  The 
Constitution  and  Laws  of  Maryland  in  Liberia," 
with  an  appendix  of  precedents,  published  by  the 
authority  of  the  Society,  second  edition,  is  hereby 
approved  and  declared  to  be  a  standard  edition  of 
the  said  constitution  and  laws."  2 

Governor  Russwurm  having  applied  for  leave  of 
absence  to  visit  the  United  States,  Dr.  Samuel  F. 
M'Gillwas  appointed  assistant  agent  in  his  absence 
on  the  7th  of  April,  1848. 

1  Mr.  Cassell  had  been  one  of  the  first  settlers  by  the  Ann  ;  and  after  a 
residence  of  some  years  at  Cape  Palinas,  returned  to  Baltimore  to  read  law 
in  the  oifice  of  IIu<j;h  D.  Evans,  where  he  became,  with  Mr.  Evans'  special 
assistance  in  his  studies,  prepared  for  the  office  now  <;iven  him. 

*  Copies  of  this  volume  were  directed  to  be  deposited  in  the  Maryland 
State  Library,  at  Annapolis,  and  in  the  Maryland  Historical  Society, 
where  they  are  now  to  be  found. 


The  members  of  the  Board  of  Managers  took 
advantage  of  Governor  Russwurin's  presence  in 
Baltimore  to  make  his  personal  acquaintance. 
They  gave  him  a  dinner  at  the  principal  hotel  in 
the  city,  at  which  there  were  no  absentees ;  and 
there  was  not  one  present  who  was  not  impressed 
by  the  grave,  courteous  and  dignified  bearing  of 
the  agent  whose  wise  and  prudent  conduct  of  the 
Society's  affairs  in  Africa  had  given  such  satis- 
faction.1 

In  1850,  the   colon v  had  been  fifteen    vears  in 

•>  */ 

existence ;  and  religious  associations  had  been 
formed  among  the  colonists  that  seemed  to  call 
for  a  mode  of  organizing  them  by  law ;  and  on  the 
18th  of  January  an  ordinance  was  enacted  "to 
enable  the  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  more 
conveniently  to  provide  and  maintain,  at  their 
own  expense,  public  worship,"  enabling  male  per- 
sons of  21  years  of  age,  belonging  to  any  religious 
society,  to  make  rules  for  their  government  in 

•/    ' 

writing,  and  generally  to  have  the  authority  ordi- 
narily conferred  in  such  cases. 


'One,  with  difficulty  recalls,  now-a-days,  the  sensation  that  the  idea  of 
this  dinner  to  a  colored  man  in  1847,  produced  in  Baltimore.  It  was 
ludicrous  to  see  the  astonishment  of  the  Irish  waiters,  who  surrounded 
the  table  at  "Page's  Hotel,"  when  they  were  called  upon  to  render  the 
same  service  to  a  colored  man  that  they  were  in  the  habit  of  rendering  to 
the  many  socially  prominent  citizens  who  were  his  hosts. 


• 


73 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Managers,  held  on 
the  21st  of  October,  1851,  intelligence  was  received 
of  the  death  of  Governor  Russwurm,  who  died  at 
the  Government  House  at  Cape  Palmas  on  the 
preceding  9th  of  June.  He  had  held  his  office 
since  1836,  with  honor  to  himself  and  greatly  to 
the  advantage  of  the  Society.  Deeply  impressed 
with  the  loss  they  had  sustained,  the  Board  of 
Managers  deemed  it  proper  to  send  an  address  to 
the  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia ;  in  which, 
among-  other  things,  they  say,  in  reference  to  his 
having  been  the  first  colored  governor  of  a  colony 
from  the  United  States  on  the  coast  of  Africa,  "  if 
white  men  have  ceased  to  hold  office  or  exercise 
authority  among  you,  it  is  because  the  capacity  of 
your  race,  if  ever  doubted,  to  fill  the  highest  politi- 
cal offices  with  rare  ability,  has  been  vindicated  by 
Governor  Russwurm.  ...  In  the  long  career  of 
happiness  and  prosperity  which  is  opening  to 
Liberia,  its  highest  offices  will  doubtless  be  filled 
by  people  of  worth  and  talent.  But  great  and  dis- 
tinguished as  these  may  be,  their  possessors  may 
always  resort  with  profit  to  vour  earliest  history  to 

v  -L  v  \j 

gather  from  the  records  of  Governor  Russwurm's 
life  the  most  honorable  examples  of  prudence, 
wisdom  and  integrity."1 

'At  the  same  meeting  it  was  resolved  that  a  monument  to  the  memory  of 
Governor  Russwurm  should  be  erected  at  Cape  Palmas.  This  was  done  at 
once.  The  design  was  an  obelisk,  on  a  heavy  granite  base,  on  which  were 


74 

The  assistant  agent,  Dr.  Samuel  F.  M'Gill,  was 
now  acting  governor;  and  in  his  despatches  of  July 
12th,  1852,  announced  the  prospective  abolition,  at 
last,  of  the  sassa  wood  ordeal.  A  violent  assault 
on  a  colonist  who  had  endeavored  to  rescue  a 
native  woman  from  the  Gree-gree  man,  was  taken 
advantage  of  by  Governor  M'Gill  to  insist  on  a 
palaver,  at  which  power  was  given  to  the  colonial 
authorities  which  would  have  the  effect  of  abolish- 
ing the  custom. 

On  the  3rd  of  May,  1852,  the  General  Assembly 
of  Maryland  continued  the  Act  of  1831  for  six 
years,  "  it  being  desirable  that  the  appropriation  of 
ten  thousand  dollars,  per  year,  should  be  renewed 
and  continued,  so  that  the  policy  of  the  State  in 
providing  a  home  in  Africa  for  the  emancipated 
slaves  and  free  colored  population,  and  for  their 
removal  thither,  may  be  carried  on."  The  Board 
of  Managers  could  have  had  no  better  proof  of  the 
satisfaction  with  which  their  proceedings  were 
regarded  than  was  thus  afforded  by  the  Act  of 
1852. 

engraved  the  following  inscriptions.  On  the  north  side,  "In  memory  of 
John  B.  Russwurm,  born  1799,  died  1857 ;  "  on  the  south  side,  "Able, 
learned  and  faithful — an  honor  to  his  race;"  on  the  east  side,  "  The  first 
Governor  of  African  descent  appointed  in  Liberia;"  on  the  west  bide, 
"  Erected  by  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  as  a  tribute  of 
respect  for  eminent  services."  The  design  of  the  monument,  as  erected,  is 
shewn  in  the  Md.  St.  Col.  Journal,  vol.  (i,  p,  349. 


to 

As  might  have  been  anticipated,  the  continued 
prosperity  of  the  colony  since  its  establishment  in 
1834,  and  the  irksomeness  of  dependence  upon 
remote  legislation  and  control,  had  begotten  a 
desire  for  independence  that  manifested  itself  by 
an  address  to  the  Board  of  Managers,  dated 
Xovember  loth,  18-51,  from  a  committee  of  the 
most  prominent  and  useful  citizens. 

"The  people,"  say  the  committee,  "wish  the 
Board  to  know  that  all  thev  do  is  intended  to 

i 

meet  their  approval:'1  and  then  the  committee  go 
over  the  whole  ground  in  a  well  prepared  paper, 
which,  on  the  27th  of  July,  was  presented  to  the 
Board  of  Managers  and  referred  to  a  committee,  of 
which  Mr.  Charles  Howard  was  chairman ;  and 
which  reported,  "that  while  on  many  accounts  it 
would  have  been  desirable  that  existing  relations 
should  remain  on  their  present  footing  until  the 
colony  should  have  realized  a  larger  emigrant 
population,  and  by  a  further  development  of  its 
resources,  have  been  prepared  to  assume  a  more 
commanding  position  as  an  independent  nation, 
yet,  the  entire  political  separation  which  had  taken 
place  between  the  old  Colony  of  Liberia  and  the 
Parent  Society,  and  the  recognition  of  the  former 
and  making  treaties  with  it  as  an  independent  and 
sovereign  power  by  England  and  France,  had  given 
to  it  a  prestige  which  did  not  attach  to  our  colony, 
and  convinced  the  committee  that  the  old  colony 


76 

would  continue  to  attract  to  itself  bv  far  the  greater 

* 

part  of  the  most  enterprising  and  best  informed  emi- 
grants from  the  United  States  and  from  Maryland, 
until  the  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  shall 

»> 

have  assumed  the  same  position  by  becoming  inde- 
pendent of  all  foreign  jurisdiction." 

The  committee,  then,  after  expressing  their  pre- 
ference for  the  formation  of  such  an  union  with 
the  elder  colonies,  as  exists  between  the  States  of 
the  United  States,  recommended,  as  a  precedent, 
the  course  pursued  in  the  separation  of  the  older 
colony  from  the  American  Colonization  Society. 

Whereupon,  it  was  resolved,  that  the  citizens  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia  be  advised  to  call  a  conven- 
tion to  prepare  a  constitution  to  be  submitted  to 
the  people,  and  that  they  appoint  commissioners 
to  visit  Maryland  to  agree  with  the  Board  of  Man- 

•s  O 

agers  upon  the  terms  of  the  separation. 

In  due  season,  the  chief  justice/  Mr.  Cassell,  and 
Mr.  William  A.  Prout  appeared  in  Baltimore  as 
commissioners;  and  on  the  12th  of  January,  1854, 

V       * 

presented  their  credentials  to  the  Board  along  with 
the  constitution  adopted  by  the  people.  This,  after 
much  discussion,  was  approved  with  a  single 
exception.  The  temperance  clause  had  been 
omitted;  and  not  being  willing  to  reject  the  entire 
instrument  on  this  account,  the  Board  of  Managers 
contented  themselves  with  saying  that  they  trusted 


77 

that  upon  further  reflection  the  people  would 
reconsider  their  action,  and  would  not  abandon 
that  part  of  their  fundamental  constitution  which 
had  so  long  tended  to  promote  good  order,  morality 
and  religion  in  the  colony.1 

Then  followed  the  agreement,  dated  February 
14th,  1854,  between  the  Maryland  State  Coloniza- 
tion Society  on  the  one  part,  and  William  Cassell 
and  William  A.  Prout,  Commissioners  of  the  Peo- 
ple of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  of  the  other  part, 
which,  if  duly  ratified  within  the  space  of  twelve 
months  by  the  people  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  was 
to  be  binding  on  the  Society  and  on  the  govern- 
ment and  people  as  aforesaid.  See  Appendix. 

1.  The  Society  agreed  to  cede  all  its  public 
lands  within  the  territory  to  the  people  and  gov- 
ernment of  the  republic,  subject  to  the  following 
conditions. 

All  future  emigrants  were  to  be  allowed  a  farm 
lot  of  ten  acres,  or  a  town  lot  of  one-quarter  of  an 
acre,  in  any  new  settlement.  In  future  sales  by 
the  government,  of  public  lands,  every  alternate 
farm,  or  section,  or  square  mile  to  be  left  to  be 
assigned  to  emigrants. 

1  It  is  proper  to  say  that  the  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  did  recon- 
sider their  decision ;  and  when  their  constitution  was  returned  to  them, 
they  restored  the  prohibition  of  the  use  of  or  traffic  in  ardent  spirits  which 
they  had  stricken  out. 

11 


78 

,  Sales  were  to  be  by  auction  to  the  highest  bidder. 
If  public  sales  could  not  be  effected  private  sales 
might  be  made. 

The  tracts  reserved  for  emigrants  might  be 
exchanged  for  others  of  equal  value,  or  sold ;  the 
proceeds  to  be  devoted  to  public  education. 

Ten  per  cent,  of  all  public  sales  of  land  were  to 
be  appropriated  to  the  use  of  schools  or  for  educa- 
tional purposes. 

The  Society  to  have  the  right,  as  at  present,  of 
locating  emigrants  in  any  present  or  future  settle- 
ments. 

New  settlements  were  to  be  made  by  the  con- 
current agreement  of  the  government  and  the 
Society. 

Land  held  for  the  use  of  emigrants  to  be  exempt 
from  taxation. 

In  the  case  of  recaptured  Africans,  the  Society 
were  to  have  the  right  to  claim  and  have  set  apart 
for  their  use,  one  hundred  acres,  as  the  Society 
might  require,  out  of  the  public  lands. 

The  Society  to  retain  the  public  store  and  adjoin- 
ing wharf,  and  the  west  half  of  the  public  farm. 

All  the  property  of  the  Society,  with  improve- 
ments made  thereon,  to  be  exempt  from  taxation 
while  in  the  Society's  hands. 

ki 

2.  The  Society  to  introduce,  free  of  duty,  stores 

•/  •/  7 

for  the  use  of  emigrants,  or  to  be  sold  for  provid- 


79 

ing  for  them.     The  Society's  vessels  to  be  free  from 
anchorage  or  light  duties. 

3.  Recaptured  Africans  to   be  admitted,  should 
the  United  States  require  it,  and  provide  for  their 
support. 

4.  The  Society  gives  to  the  government  the  gov- 
ernor's house,  and  public  offices,  forts   and  muni- 
tions of  war  and  the  warehouse  belonging  to  the 
Society.     All  property  not  ceded  by  the  articles  to 
be  reserved  and  disposed  of  by  the  Society  at  its 
discretion. 

5.  Future  emigrants  to  have  the  same  privileges 
as  the  present  ones. 

6.  A  merger  by  the  present  Society  in  a  different 
one  not  to  affect  rights  under  the  agreement. 

7.  The  agreement  to  be  modified  by  mutual  con- 

»/ 

sent;   and,  to  go  into  effect  on  being  ratified  by 
the  people  of  Maryland  in  Liberia. 

With  the  execution  of  this  agreement  and  its 
ratification  by  the  people  which  followed  in  due 
course,  the  work  of  the  Maryland  State  Coloniza- 
tion Society,  although  still  incomplete  as  far  as  it 
related  to  the  emigration  from  the  State,  came  to 
an  end,  by  the  establishment  of  a  free  and  inde- 
pendent nation,  a  member  of  the  family  of  nations 
on  the  west  coast  of  Africa,  to  which  emancipated 
slaves  or  free  colored  people  from  Maryland  might 
go,  either  at  their  own  expense  or  with  means  still 
furnished  by  the  State. 


80 

,  To  facilitate  their  earlier  progress,  by  aiding  the 
authorities  of  the  new  government  to  pay  the  cost 
of  their  civil  list,  the  State  Society  contributed, 

*/ 

in  the  beginning,  under  a  separate  agreement,  the 
particulars  of  which  would  have  no  interest  now. 

All  that  has  thus  far  been  described  was  within 
the  personal   knowledge   of  the   writer,  either  as 
corresponding  secretary  of  the  State  Society,  up  to 
1837,  or   as   its   president,    up  to  1853,  when   he 
became  president  of  the  national  institution;  and 
as  has  been   already  suggested,  it  is  this  personal 
knowledge,   which,   at    all    events,   facilitates   the 
understanding  of  recorded   proceedings,  that  has 
made  it  seem  to  be  the  duty  of  the  writer  to  nar- 
rate a  history,  which,  having  no  place  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  State  up  to  this  time,  might  otherwise 
be  lost.     What  took  place  after  1853  was  under 
the  wise  and  admirable  administration  of  the  late 
Mr.  Charles  Howard ;  a  noble  gentleman,  an  up- 
right  Christian   man,   whose  correspondence   and 
reports  in  the  records  of  the  State  Society  afford 
the  amplest  evidence  of  the  worth  and  ability  of 
the  president ;  and  yet  both  Mr.  Howard  and  his 
predecessor  would  have  been  comparatively  feeble 
in  the  management  of  the  affairs  of  the  Society  in 
Africa,  and  its  business  transactions  in  America, 
had  not  both  enjoyed  the  benefit  of  the  services  of 
Dr.  James  Hall,  the  founder  of  the  colony  after  he 

'  •/ 


81 

had  vindicated  the  suggestion  of  its  site,  and  after 
1841,  the  general  a^ent  and  manager  of  the 

C-?  ^-J  *^ 

Society. 

On  the  29th  May,  1854,  an  election  of  Governor 
of  "the  State  of  Marvland  in  Liberia,"  as  it  was 

«/ 

now  called  under  the  popular  constitution,  was 
held,  and  William  A  Prout  was  elected  Governor, 
and  William  S.  Drayton  Lieutenant  Governor ; 
Senators,  Representatives,  a  High  Sheriff  and  a 
Coroner  were  elected  at  the  same  time,  and 
Thomas  Mason  was  appointed  Secretary  of  State. 
On  the  8th  June,  1854,  the  Governor  was  inaugu- 
rated, and  Dr.  Samuel  F.  M'Gill,  the  acting  Gov- 
ernor appointed  by  the  State  Society,  and  its  agent, 
administered  to  him  the  oath  of  office,  and  relin- 
quished the  government  into  his  hands. 

On  the  9th  Governor  Prout  was  presented  to  the 
native  kings  and  headmen ;  the  change  that  had 
taken  place  was  explained  and  "  dashes ':  were 
given  proportionate  to  the  occasion.  "  Le  Roi  est 
mort,  vive  le  Roi" 

The  independence  of  the  State  of  Maryland  in 
Liberia  did  not  by  any  means  terminate  its  rela- 
tions to  the  State  Society.  The  State's  appropria- 
tion was  not  exhausted,  and  emigrants  were  still 
sent  from  Maryland.  The  business  in  the  way  of 


82 

trade,  that  had  contributed  so  largely  to  the  means 
of  the  State  Society  still  continued.  The  legisla- 
tive functions  of  the  Board  of  Managers  had  come 
to  an  end ;  that  was  all.  Hereafter  it  could  only 
advise.  The  infant  had  attained  its  majority,  and 
the  guardian's  right  to  command  had  ceased. 

While  reference  is  made  here  to  the  State's 
appropriation,  it  would  be  a  great  mistake  to  sup- 
pose that  the  State  Society  had  been  altogether 
dependent  upon  the  $10.000  per  annum  in  accom- 
plishing the  results  that  have  been  here  described. 
A  balance  sheet  made  up  to  December  31,  1857, 
for  example,  showed  a  credit  to  profit  and  loss  of 
$139,972. 31,  over  and  above  collections,  amount- 
ing, at  that  date  to  $45,385.74 ;  and,  in  all  the 
reports  of  the  commissioners  of  the  .State  fund 
under  the  Act  of  1831,  care  is  taken  to  state  that 
the  contributions  of  the  State  Society  to  the  gen- 
eral object  had  enabled  the  commissioners  to 
devote  the  whole  of  the  State's  appropriations  to 
the  transportation  of  emigrants  and  to  providing 
for  their  reception  in  Africa,  all  the  expenses  of 
the  government  there,  and  of  the  Society  in 
America,  being  otherwise  provided  for. 

Governor  Prout  died  during  his  term  of  office, 
and  Lieutenant  Governor  B.  S.  Dravton  took  his 

V 

place.     It  was  under  his  administration  that  the 


83 

native  war  began  which  was  the  immediate  cause 
of  the  absorption  of  the  new  State  into  the  older 
one  of  Liberia  proper.  Without  the  cautious  and 
sagacious  and  patient  temper  of  his  predecessors, 
Governor  Drayton's  course  has  been  said  to  have 
brought  on  a  conflict  resulting  in  many  deaths  on 
both  sides,  which  made  it  necessary  to  apply  to 
the  authorities  at  Monrovia  for  assistance.  It  so 
happened,  most  remarkably,  that  when  the  appli- 
cation came,  Dr.  Hall  happened  to  be  at  Monrovia 
in  the  Marv  Caroline  Stevens  x  on  a  visit  to  Africa. 

V 

With  his  usual  energy  and  with  means  belonging 
to  the  State  Society  at  command,  he  at  once  sup- 
plied what  was  wanting  to  equip  115  uniformed 
troops  that  he  carried  in  the  Stevens  to  Cape 
Palmas,  where  his  influence,  that  had  not  yet  died 
out,  backed  by  military  force,  soon  produced  peace, 
and  a  treaty  was  concluded  with  the  natives  on 
equitable  terms. 

1  The  Mary  Caroline  Stevens  was  built  in  Baltimore  for  the  American 
Colonization  Society.  Mr.  John  (T  Stevens,  of  Talbot  County,  Maryland, 
had  made  the  munificent  donation  of  $37,000  to  be  appropriated  to  the 
building  of  a  vessel  to  be  held  in  trust  for  colonization  purposes.  It  was 
first  proposed  by  Mr.  Stevens  that  the  Maryland  State  Society  should 
become  the  recipient  of  his  bounty,  and  be  the  beneficiary  owners  of  the 
vessel;  but  he  was  advised  that  the  State  Society  would  not  be  justified  in 
keeping  such  a  ship  constantly  employed;  the  title  of  the  vessel  was 
accordingly  vested  in  three  officers  of  the  American  Colonization  Society, 
to  be  held  in  trust  for  it;  while,  by  stipulations  with  the  State  Society,  the 
latter  secured  the  right  to  transport  emigrants  by  her.  She  sailed  on  her 
first  voyage  at  the  close  of  November,  1856.  This  vessel  continued  in  the 
trade  for  six  years,  when  she  was  sold  and  replaced  by  the  Golconda,  of 
greater  capacity. 


• 


84 

Prior  to  this  war,  the  question  of  annexation  to 
Liberia  proper  had  been  mooted  among  the  citi- 
zens. The  war  and  the  value  of  the  assistance 
rendered  from  Monrovia  settled  it ;  and  it  was  not 
long  before  negotiations  were  begun  which  ended 
in  the  absorption  of  the  territory,  that  had  been 
acquired  from  time  to  time  by  the  State  Society, 
into  the  Republic  of  Liberia,  as  Maryland  County.1 

In  1858,  the  Legislature  continued  the  appro- 
priation for  colonization  purposes  under  the  Act  of 
1831  for  five  years,  reducing  the  amount  however 
to  $5,000  annually ;  and  there  had  been  three  pay- 
ments at  this  rate  when  the  late  Civil  War  broke 
out.  The  whole  question  of  slavery  then  assumed 
a  new  aspect ;  and  the  commissioners  of  the  State 
fund,  under  the  belief  that  the  Act  of  18-58  had 
been  abrogated  virtually  by  the  course  of  events, 
made  no  requisition  for  the  last  two  payments. 

Ceasing  to  have  any  peculiar  interest  in  the 
colony  at  Cape  Pal  mas  when  the  new  State  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia  ceased  to  exist,  the  activity 
of  the  State  Society  died  out ;  and  realizing  after 
a  negotiation  with  the  American  Colonization 

O 

Society  the  sum  of  $6,000  out  of  a  loan  to  it  when 
the  Mary  Caroline  Stevens  was  on  the  stocks,  the 

1  For  the  acquisitions  of  the  State  Society,  see  Appendix. 


State   Society  invested  it  in  Pittsburgh  and  Con- 

*/ 

nellsville  7  per  cent,  railroad  bonds,  which  are 
held  bv  Dr.  James  Hall,  trustee  for  the  benefit  of 

i 

the  ''Hall  School'  at  Cape  Palmas;  and  the 
interest  on  which  is  regularly  collected  by  the 

V  V 

Liberian  authorities,  and  appropriated  to  the 
salary  of  $300  to  the  teacher,  and  the  other 
expenses  of  the  school. 

The  organization  of  the  State  Society  still  con- 

*/ 

tinues,  but  it  is  only  in  connection  with  this 
trust. 

Here,  the  episode  of  the  State  of  Maryland's 
action  in  connection  with  African  colonization,  and 
of  the  sovereignty  which  a  Society  acting  under  its 

I  V 

auspices  exercised  for  twenty  years  in  Africa, 
mio-ht  end ;  but  it  may  not  be  uninteresting  to 

f 

describe  the  appearance  of  things  at  Cape  Palmas 
when  the  government  there  passed  into  the  hands 
of  the  successors  of  the  State  Society,  as  well  as  to 
say  a  few  words  in  regard  to  the  collateral  advan- 
tages which  the  chief  city  of  the  State  derived  from 
the  operations  of  the  Society  during  its  active 
existence. 

» 

The   extent   of  improvements    at    Cape  Palmas 
soon   after   Dr.  Hall    had   taken   possession  have 
already  been  described.     A  word  more   in   regard 
to  it  at  the  date  of  independence. 
12 


86 


In  the  town  of  Harper,  on  the  Cape  itself, 
besides  the  Government  House,  which  had  been 
largely  added  to  and  improved,  there  was  a  stone 
light-house,  whose  lantern,  visible  twenty  miles  at 
sea,  had  been  imported  by  the  colonists  from  Eng- 
land. Hard  by,  were  the  Episcopal  Orphan  Asy- 
lum and  St.  Mark's  Hospital,  the  former  a  frame 
building,  three  stories  high,  a  conspicuous  land- 
mark; the  latter  a  substantial  stone  structure. 
Between  these  and  the  Government  House  were  a 
number  of  private  residences ;  and  below  the  Cape 
on  the  river  shore,  were  four  stone  warehouses  and 
a  wharf  of  the  same  material.  The  native  village 
of  King  Freeman  still  occupied  its  old  position  on 
the  brow  of  the  Cape,  inland.  Standing  here,  over- 
looking the  scene  of  Popo's  rescue,  the  eye  followed 
the  Maryland  avenue  extending  towards  the 

•> 

interior,  some  five  miles,  to  Mount  Tubman  and  its 
stockade  fort.  On  either  side  of  this  were  farm-lots 
of  the  colonists.  The  avenue,  which  was  a  well- 
bridged  and  graded  road,  kept  cleared  by  constant 
travel,  passed  by  the  Baptist  Mission  and  the  Pro- 
testant Episcopal  Mission  stations,  the  public  farm 
and  jail.  In  the  village  of  Latrobe,  at  the  seaward 
end  of  the  avenue,  were  St.  Mark's  Episcopal 
church,  with  its  adjoining  brick  school-house,  the 
Methodist  church,  the  Mission  house,  and  a  fine 
two-story  stone  school-house,  together  with  the  site 
of  the  Congregational  Mission,  so  pleasantly  de- 


87 


scribed  by  Mrs.  Wilson  in  the  letter  already  quoted. 
The  houses  in  the  village  were  comfortable  dwell- 
ings, with  gardens  in  front.  Beyond  the  village  was 
Sheppard  lake,  of  which  a  glimpse  was  had  with  a 
background  of  heavy  tropical  forest,  from  the  luxu- 
riant verdure  of  which  the  eve  wandered  to  the 

v 

ocean,  with  its  waves  breaking  upon  the  narrow 
beach  that  separated  it  from  the  lake.  From  King 
Freeman's  town,  in  another  direction,  Hoffman 
river  was  seen,  with  the  receptacle  for  new  emi- 
grants and  the  public  farm  upon  its  banks.  Add 
to  this  the  comfortable  dwellings  of  the  colonists 

*_? 

scattered  here  and  there  throughout  the  settlement, 
and  lovely  as  the  spot  was  described  to  be  in  its 
earlier  aspect,  it  had  lost  none  of  its  beauty  when 
civilization  had  set  its  mark  upon  it. 

The  original  territorv  had  been  greatlv  enlarged, 

t/         •  «/ 

and  at  the  date  of  independence  reached  from  the 
river  Sesters,  on  the  windward,  to  the  river  San 
Pedro,  on  the  leeward  coast,  and  extended,  after 
annexation,  the  leeward  boundary  of  Liberia  to 
the  last-named  river. 

With  regard,  now,  to  the  value  to  Baltimore  com- 
mercially of  the  operations  of  the  Maryland  State 
Colonization  Societv,  directlv  and  indirectlv,  during 

tf    '  •/  V    * 

the  thirty  years  of  its  active  existence,  as  well 
after  as  before  the  colony  became  independent. 


88 

During  this  time,  shipments  from  Baltimore 
required  for  the  use  of  the  colony  or'  for  the  trade 
connected  with  it,  amounted  to  upwards  of  one  mil- 
lion dollars;  to  which  are  to  be  added  shipments  for 
the  American  Colonization  Society  equal  to  half  a 
million  more ;  a  business  that  ceased  altogether 
when  it  was  no  longer  dune  in  Baltimore,  but 
went  to  New  York  and  Norfolk,  which  had  con- 
trolled it  prior  to  1834.  At  the  same  time,  there 
were  built  in  Baltimore,  for  and  under  the  aus- 
pices of  the  State  Society,  eight  vessels  costing 
$113,000,  and  bought  for  it  vessels  costing  $22,000, 
in  all  $135,000 ;  and  in  addition  to  this  eighteen 
vessels  were  chartered.  After  1852,  nearly  double 
that  number  were  chartered  and  sailed  from  Bal- 
timore on  account  of  the  American  Colonization 
Society.  Estimating  the  charter  parties  at  only 
$3,000  each  for  the  above  eighteen,  and  $54,000 
is  to  be  added  to  the  cost  of  the  vessels  built  and 
bought  by  the  State  Society ;  in  a  word,  taking 
into  consideration  the  money  spent  for  labor,  ma- 
terials and  merchandise  in  Baltimore  after  the 
passage  of  the  Act  of  1831,  the  amount  cannot 
have  been  less  than  two  million  dollars,  all  on 
account  of,  or  in  connection  with  the  State  Society. 
To  this  should  be  added  sailing  expenses  of  the 
Mary  Caroline  Stevens  *  for  six  years  at  $1.000  per 

'The  figures  in  the  above  statement  were  furnished  by  Dr.  Hall,  and  are 
taken  from  the  books  of  the  State  Society. 


89 

month,  ,$ 72,000,  and  of  the  Liberia  Packet,  six 
years  at  $700  per  month,  say  £50,000,  in  all, 
$122,000,  without  calculating  interest  on  the  cost  of 
the  vessels, — all  distributed  in  Baltimore.  Taking 

C— 7 

all  this  into  consideration,  the  importance  of  the 
State  Society  in  a  commercial  point  of  view  was  not 
to  be  disregarded.1 


After  the  absorption  of  the  "  State  of  Maryland 
in  Liberia  "  into  Liberia  proper,  its  memory  faded 
until  the  scant  notice  in  the  history  of  our  State, 
already  referred  to,  seems  to  have  been  regarded  as 
all  sufficient  in  this  connection.  Vessels  came  and 
went  by  Cape  Palmas,  and  availed  themselves  of 
the  lio-ht-house  built  there  bv  the  colonists,  in 

O  i/ 

utter  ignorance  of  the  circumstances  attending  its 
existence.  In  the  meanwhile,  however,  a  change 
in  the  public  mind  in  regard  to  Africa  had  arisen. 
The  necessity  for  new  markets  for  the  ever  accu- 
mulating over  production  of  manufacturing  civi- 
lization had  drawn  the  attention  of  both  Europe 

'The  vessels  built,  and  their  cost,  are  as  follows:  Ship  Mary  Caroline 
Stevens,  $46,000;  Barque  Liberia  Packet,  $20,000;  Barque  Shirly, 
$12,000;  Brig  P.almas,  $12,000;  Schooners  President  Benson,  George  R. 
McGill,  Moses  .Sheppard,  §6,000  each;  James  Hall,  $0,000.  Vessels 
bought:  Morgan  Dix.  $6,000;  Ralph  Cross,  $8,000.  The  vessels  chartered 
were:  1831,  the  Orion;  1832,  Lafayette;  1833,  Ann;  1834,  Sarah  and 
Prise-ilia,  Bourne;  183o,  Harmony,  Fortune;  1830,  Financier,  Niobe;  1837, 
Baltimore,  Niobe,  second  voyage ;  1838,  Columbia,  Oberon ;  1839,  Boxer ; 
1840,  Chipola;  1842,  Globe;  1843,  Latrobe;  184-3,  Kent. 


90 


and  America  to  the  comparatively  virgin  field,  in 
this  respect,  that  Africa  might  afford  ;  and  when 
the  explorations  of  Livingstone  and  Stanley  had 
thrown  light  upon  it,  the  European  nations,  almost 
without  exception,  under  the  lead  of  the  King  of 
the  Belgians,  at  once  sought  to  make  it  available. 

O  O 

The  result  was  the  formation  of  the  International 
Association,  that  has  since,  with  the  cooperation  of 
the  late  Berlin  conference,  provided  for  the  estab- 
lishment and  maintenance  of  the  Free  State  of  the 
Congo.  The  preliminary  proceeding  here,  was  to 
repeat  what  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  had 
shown  to  be  practicable — treaties  with  the  native 
kings — who,  on  both  banks  of  the  Congo,  respec- 
tively, transferred  by  treaty  to  the  new  State, 
rights  and  privileges  similar  to  those  that  King 
Freeman  and  his  head  men  gave  to  the  State 
Society  in  February,  1834;  and  the  experience 
of  both  the  old  and  the  new  settlements  in  Liberia 
has  been  again  and  again  referred  to,  as  obviating 

the  necessitv  of  resorting  to    the   old    writers    on 

«/ 

international  law  to  justify  the  steps  taken  or 
about  to  be  taken,  to  introduce  colonization  and  its 
attendant  blessings  into  the  innermost  recesses  of 
the  Dark  Continent.  On  one  occasion,  when  the 
question  of  the  recognition  by  treaty  of  the  flag  of 
the  Free  State  by  the  United  States  was  before  the 
Senate,  an  opportunity  was  afforded,  at  the  resi- 
dence of  the  Honorable  Henry  S.  Sanford,  acting 


91 


for  the  International  Association,  to  tell  the  story 
of  the  settlement  at  Cape  Palmas — to  exhume,  as 
it  were,  an  incident  which  none  present  had  ever 
heard  of.  On  this  occasion  it  was  evident  that 
an  interest  was  excited  which  it  is  not  unreasonable 
to  suppose  may  have  affected  the  senators  and 
representatives  who  were  present  in  connection 
with  their  subsequent  action  upon  the  subject.  At 
any  rate,  it  was  pleasant  to  find  that,  after  thirty- 
odd  vears  of  forgetfulness.  what  Marvland  had 

V  ^ 

done  was  both  appreciated  and  admired;  and  it 
was  this  which  has,  perhaps,  quickened  the  long 
deferred  intention  of  preserving,  while  it  might 
still  be  done,  the  memory  of  a  good  work  of  the 
State  of  Marvland. 


APPENDIX 


EXTRACT 

FROM  THE   PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE   ELEVENTH    ANNUAL   MEETING  OF 

THE  AMERICAN  SOCIETY,  HELD  JANUARY  19,  1828,  IN  THE 

HALL  OF  THE  HOUSE  OF  REPRESENTATIVES. 

At  7  o'clock,  the  chair  was  taken  by  the  Hon.  Henry  Clay,  one 
of  the  vice-presidents  of  the  Society.  Fifteen  auxiliary  Societies 
were  represented,  the  delegates  from  the  State  Society  of  Mary- 
land being  Charles  C.  Harper  and  John  H.  B.  Latrobe. 

Among  other  proceedings,  the  following  resolution  was  offered 
by  Mr.  Latrobe : 

"Resolved,  That  the  Board  of  Managers  be  directed  to  ascertain 
in  the  course  of  the  coming  year,  if  possible,  the  practicability  of 
obtaining  territory  for  colonial  settlements  at  Cape  Palmas,  and 
the  Island  of  Bulama,  on  the  south-west  coast  of  Africa." 

In  support  of  this  resolution,  Mr.  Latrobe  said  :  "  An  inspection 
of  the  map  of  Africa  will  satisfy  you,  Mr.  Chairman,  of  the 
importance  of  these  two  points  with  reference  to  the  future  opera- 
tions of  the  Society:  and  their  commercial  advantages  lx-ing 
great,  an  early  attempt  to  secure  them  may  perhaps  prevent  their 
falling  into  other  hands  and  enable  the  Society  to  use  them  when 
the  time  shall  have  arrived  at  which  they  may  be  used  with 
advantage 

"Cape  Palmas  is  at  that  part  of  Africa  where  the  coast,  after  pur- 
suing a  course  due  east  and  west  from  the  Bight  of  Biafra, 
trends  in  nearly  a  north-west  direction,  and  passing  by  Liberia, 
continues  in  an  almost  uninterrupted  line  to  Cape  Roxo.  The 
13  93 


94 

Island  of  Bulama,  in  the  mouth  of  the  Rio  Grande,  is  near  the 
other  extremity  of  the  south-west  coast,  within  a  short  run  from 
the  Cape  de  Verdes,  and  one  of  the  points  of  the  coast  most  easily 
made  by  vessels  from  this  country. 

"  By  possessing  Cape  Palmas,  we  would  hold  the  commercial  key 
of  the  south  coast  of  Africa,  and  the  countries  immediately  in  the 
interior,  down  as  far  east  as  the  Bight  of  Biafra  ;  and  a  colony 
there  would,  in  a  few  years,  become  a  great  depot  for  all  the 
articles  of  foreign  produce  and  manufactures  which  would  be 
required  by  inhabitants  of  the  nations  eastward  of  the  settlement. 
This  will  be  the  effect  of  a  physical  cause,  which  is  certain  and 
unchanging  in  its  operations.  The  trade  winds,  pursuing  the 
general  outline  of  the  African  coast,  render  a  return  northward 
from  the  eastward  of  Cape  Palmas,  along  the  coast,  extremely 
difficult  at  all  seasons  of  the  year,  and  more  particularly  so  in  the 
rainy  season,  when  the  difficulty  of  taking  observations,  and  the 
numerous  and  varying  currents  prevent  vessels  from  knowing 
their  exact  situation,  and  expose  them  to  constant  danger  of  ship- 
wreck. From  Cape  Palmas,  or  any  point  to  the  northward  of  it, 
it  is  comparatively  easy  to  return  to  the  Cape  de  Verdes,  and  so 
home  at  all  times ;  but  Cape  Palmas  once  passed,  the  danger  and 
difficulty  commence,  and  disastrous  shipwreck  or  a  shattered 
vessel  is  too  often  the  consequence  of  a  return  voyage  from  a 
point  beyond  it.  Were  a  settlement  made  at  Cape  Palmas  it 
would,  like  Monrovia,  soon  become  the  resort  of  the  surrounding 
nations,  and  merchants  would  prefer  leaving  their  goods  at  such 
a  market,  to  running  the  risks  of  proceeding  further  eastward, 
even  with  the  hopes  of  enhanced  profits.  Paths  would  first  be 
made,  highways  would  follow,  until  the  uncivilized  nations  of  the 
Ivory  coast  and  Gold  coast,  passing  by  the  feeble  settlements  of  Cape 
Coast  and  Elmina,  would  rtsort  to  meet  civilization  at  the  nearest 
point  of  safe  approach — the  Americo-African  city  at  Cape 
Palmas.  A  great  and  prosperous  trade  would  be  the  consequence  ; 
and  the  facilities  of  gain  would  soon  till  the  new  settlement  with 


95 

industrious  inhabitants.  Beside  the  commercial  advantages  ot 
Cape  Palmar,  its  road  and  anchorage  are  said  to  be  the  best 
between  Monfc»errado  (Mesurada)  and  tlie  Volta ;  and  the  sur- 
rounding country  is  rolling  and  fertile,  intersected  with  numerous 
small  streams  lit  for  the  motion  of  mills.  Being  the  southern 
extremity  of  the  south-west  coast,  it  will  form  also  a  natural  boun- 
dary to  that  empire  which,  we  all  hope,  will  one  day  arise  in 
Africa." ' 


AFRICAN    DEEDS, 

TO   THE 
SXA.XK  COLOISTIZ A.TIO>T  SOCIETY. 


Deed  No.  i. 

FROM  KING  FREEMAN  AND  KING  WILL,  OF  CAPE  PALMAS. 
Executed  the  14th  February,  1834. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  for  considerations  here- 
inafter mentioned,  we,  King  Freeman,  alias  Parmah,  of  Cape 
Palmas,  king  Will,  alias  Weah  Boleo,  of  Grahway,  and  King  Joe 
Holland,  alias  Baphro,  of  Grand  Cavally,  have  granted  and 
sold,  and  do  by  these  presents,  grant  and  sell  to  the  Maryland 
State  Colonization  Society,  of  Maryland,  in  the  United  States  of 
North  America,  the  following  tract  of  laud  of  which  we  are  law- 

1  It  is  amusing  in  these  days  to  see  the  calmness  with  which  the  south- 
west coast  of  Africa  was  thus  appropriated  ;  especially  in  the  light  of  what 
the  civilized  world  is  now  doing  to  obtain  foothold  everywhere  or  any- 
where on  the  continent,  coast  or  inland.  But  the  fact  is,  that  57  years  ago,  so 
little  attention  was  paid  to  Africa,  so  little  was  known  about  it,  that  it  was 
a  fair  field  for  all  sorts  of  speculations.  Those  of  the  speech  of  the  Marv- 
laml  delegate  had  this  value  practically  ;  that  they  caused,  as  detailed, 
the  intelligent  examination  which  led  to  the  establishment  of  Maryland 
in  Liberia — which  affords  the  only  excuse  for  their  mention  here. 


96 

fully  seized  at  this  time  by  right  of  possession  and  descent,  viz. : 
Commencing  on  the  sea  beach,  about  three  miles  to  the  north-west 
of  Cape  Palruas,  at  a  cocoa-nut  tree,  known  as  the  large  cocoa- 
nut,  separating  this  territory  from  that  of  the  king  of  Rock 
Town,  thence  running  in  about  an  east  north-east  direction,  one 
day's  journey,  until  it  shall  reach  the  territory  of  Kava,  king  of 
the  interior ;  from  thence  running  east  south-east,  six  hours  walk, 
until  it  shall  reach  the  town  of  King  Tom  on  the  Cavally  river ; 
from  thence  down  the  Cavally  river  to  its  mouth ;  then  running 
along  the  beach,  passing  the  town  of  Cavally  ;  Grahway  and  Cape 
Palmas  to  the  point  at  starting,  viz. :  the  large  cocoa-nut  tree ; 
including  all  the  rivers,  bays,  creeks,  anchorages,  timber  and 
mines,  on  the  same,  excepting  as  follows :  A  tract  of  land  deeded, 
and  given  sometime  since,  by  the  above  named  King  Will,  alias 
Weah  Boleo,  of  Grahway,  to  King  Yellow  Will,  of  little  Cavally. 
Also  excepting  so  much  of  the  said  territory  as  is  now  under  cul- 
tivation by  the  inhabitants  thereof,  or  such  places  as  are  occupied 
by  us  or  our  dependents,  as  towns  and  villages  ;  reserving  also  the 
right  of  passing  and  repassing  up  and  down  all  rivers  and  creeks, 
and  of  traversing  all  sections  of  the  country  not  inhabited  by  the 
colonists  of  the  said  Society  ;  the  said  Society  to  have,  and  to  hold 
the  same  for  its  own  special  benefit,  and  behoof  forever ;  and  we 
do  agree  to  warrant  and  defend  the  same  against  the  claims  of  all 
persons  whatever;  and  it,  the  said  Society  shall  have  power  by  its 
factors  or  agents  to  exercise  all  authority  in  the  above  named  ter- 
ritory, reserving  to  ourselves  and  our  descendants  the  right  of 
governing  and  setting  all  palavers  among  our  own  people  so  long 
as  we  shall  see  fit  to  occupy  any  part  of  said  territory.  And  we 
do  hereby  acknowledge  ourselves  as  members  of  the  Colony  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia,  so  far  as  to  unite  in  common  defence  in 
case  of  war  or  foreign  aggresssion. 

We  do  also  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  the  following  articles  of 
Merchandise  of  James  Hall,  Esquire,  agent  of  the  said  Society 
and  governor  of  said  territory,  as  a  full  and  ample  compensa- 
tion therefor,  viz. :  4  Cases  of  Muskets,  20  kegs  Powder,  110 


97 

pieces  of  Cloth,  10  Neptunes,  10  Brass  Kettles,  20  Hat?,  100 
Cutlasses,  200  Ibs.  Beads,  1,500  Ibs.  Iron  Pots,  (i  doz.  looking 
Glasses,  4  framed  ditto,  24  Iron  bars,  100  trade  knives,  100  wash 
basins,  3  Hotheads  tobacco,  10  Boxes  pipes,  2  kegs  flints,  6 
Dozen  Locks,  24  Decanters,  50  Tumblers,  50  Wine  Glasses,  24 
stone  Jugs,  10  Demijohns,  3  suits  of  Clothes,  3  cocked  hats,  25 
Razors  in  Cases,  50  Pitchers,  50  mugs,  50  Bowls,  3  pr.  Brass 
barrelled  Pistols,  1,000  Fish  Hooks,  50  pr.  Scissors,  50  Spanish 
Dollars.  And  I,  the  said  Hall,  do,  in  the  name  of  the  said 
Society,  guaranty  to  the  said  kings  and  their  dependents  the 
above  reserved  rights,  and  further,  that  neither  themselves  nor 
property  shall  be  trespassed  upon  or  molested  in  unv  manner 
whatever,  and 'no  lands  under  cultivation,  or  towns  or  villages 
shall  be  taken  from  them,  except  by  special  contract ;  paying  the 
desired  remuneration  therefor.  And  I  do  further  agree,  for  and 
in  the  name  of  the  said  society  ;  that  free  schools  shall  be  estab- 
lished for  the  benefit  of  the  children  in  each  of  the  following 
towns,  in  one  year  from  the  date  hereof,  viz. :  One  at  Cape  Pal- 
mas,  one  at  Garroway,  and  one  at  Grand  Cavally. 

This  instrument,  with  a  duplicate  thereof,  is  executed  at  Cape 
Palmas,  this  fourteenth  day  of  February,  One  Thousand,  Eight 
Hundred  and  Thirty-four. 

KING  FREEMAN,  alias  PARMAH, 

Of  Cape  Palmar. 
KING  JOE  HOLLAND,  alias  BAPHRO, 

Of  Grand  Cavally. 
KING  WILL,  alias  WEAH  BOLIO, 

King  of  Grahaway. 
JAMES  HALL,  Agent, 

Maryland  State  Colonization  Society. 

Signed,  sealed,  and  one  copy  delivered  to  King  Freeman,  and 
one  to  James  Hall,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization 
Society,  in  presence  of  JAS.  M.  THOMPSON  and  GEO.  R. 
McGlLL. 


98 


SUPPLEMENT   AFFIXED  TO   THE   ABOVE   DEED   OF   TERRI- 
TORY    FROM     THE    KINGS     OF     CAPE     PALMAS, 
GRAIIWAY  AND  GRAND  CAVALLY. 

We,  whose  names  are  hereunto   affixed,   head   men  of  Cape 
Palmas,  Grahway,  and  Cavally,  ratify  and  confirm  the  foregoing 

contract  made  by   our with    James    Hall,   Agent  of  the 

Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  this  thirteenth  day  of 
February,  One  Thousand  Eight  Hundred  and  Thirty-four. 

U-.vn-YoH,  Governor  of  Cape  Palmas. 
JUMBO,  Soldier  Kiny. 
GEOH,  Gent,  und  headman. 

KIBROH,  Governor  of  Grahwai/  biy  town. 

i 

GELAH,  Kiiiy's  mate  and  Governor  of  Half  Cavally. 
SEEK,  Pioneer  of  the  Expedition. 
BALLY,  King's  mouth  or  interpreter. 
NEAH,  Palaver-house  man. 
OURAB, 
DEWEY, 
Attest : 
JAMES  M.  THOMPSON. 

GEORGE    K.    McGlLL. 

CONFIRMATION   BY  THE   HEADMEN  OF  GRAND  CAVALLY. 

Grand  Carally,  Wf*t  Africa,  May  20,  1834. 
We,  the  undersigned  headmen  of  Grand  Cavally,  do,  by  these 
presents,  notify  and  confirm  the  contract  made  by  our  king,  Joe 

Holland,  alia*  Baphro,  in with  Will,  alias  Boleo,  king  of 

Grahway,  and  Freeman,  alias  Pah  Xeeuiah,  king  of  Cape  Palmas, 
on  one  part,  and  James  Hall,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colo- 
nixation  Society,  on  the  other  part,  deeding  and  conveying  all 
the  territory  now  possessed  or  hnlden  by  us,  to  the  said  Society, 
reserving  so  much  thereof  as  is  now  under  cultivation,  or  is 
occupied  by  us  as  towns  and  villages,  agreeable  to  the  deed 


99 


executed  by  the  above-named  kings  at  Cape  Palmas,  on  the  thir- 
teenth   day  of  February,   One   Thousand   Eight    Hundred  and 

Thirty-four. 

BARVOW,  Governor. of  Cavally. 

TWEADAH,  Governor  ATote. 

TWEABEY,  Kinys  Adjutant. 

KOLEH,  Soldier  King. 

NEAHBEY,  Head  trade  man  for  River  Cavally. 

JULEH,  Kiny'x  Mouth. 
Attest : 

AXTHOXY  WOOD. 


Deed  No.  2. 
FROM  KING  BARRAH  KEABY,  OF  BULYEMAH. 

Executed  the  21  st  October,  1835. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  I,  Barrah  Keaby,  the 

true   and  lawful  king  of  the  country,  called  Bulyemah,  and  of 

the    Lsabreh    people    inhabiting    said    Country,    do,    by    these 

presents,  grant,  deed  and  convey  unto  James  Hall,  as  Agent  of 

the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  and  through  and  by 

him,  to   said   Society,  the   territory  now    under   my  authority, 

called  Bulyemah,  and  bounded  as  follows,  viz. :  beginning  at  a 

large  rock  on  the  beach,  about  six  miles  East  of  the  mouth  of  the 

river  Cavally,  the  same  being  the  natural  bounding  line  between 

Robookah  and  Labou  ;  thence  running  in  a  northerly  direction 

(point  of  compass  not  known),  one  and  a  half  days  journey,  or 

about  fifty  miles  to  the  country,  called  Labou,  governed  by  King 

Yootoo,  thence  running  in  a  westerly  direction  to  the  Cavally 

river,  at  the  mouth  of  Bohraurn  creek,  the  natural  boundary 

line   between  the  Nigahpoh   Yeabreh  people,  thence  down  the 

Cavally  river,  including  both  sides  on  the  west  side  to  a  town 

belonging  to  the  Half  Cavally,  or  Boureh  people  called  Deamah 

on  the  east  side,  extending  to  the  river  mouth,  thence  along  the 


100 

sea  beach,  about  six  miles  to  the  rock  at  point  of  starting,  to  have 
and  to  hold  the  same,  in  common  with  my  own  people,  and  to 
occupy  any  part  thereof  not  now  in  actual  use  as  a  town,  village 
or  farm,  or  Devil  plot,  with  all  privileges  and  appurtenances 
thereunto  belonging  forever.  And  it  is  further  agreed  by  the  said 
parties  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  above-named  country  and  the 
king  thereof,  and  the  American  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia 
shall  unite  their  forces  in  defence  of  their  common  country,  and 
of  the  territory  already  belonging  to  the  Maryland  Colonization 
Society  in  Africa,  to  which  this  is  now  annexed.  And  it  is 
further  agreed  that  all  palaver  occurring  between  any  two  kings 
residing  in  Maryland  in  Liberia,  or  between  the  subjects  of  any 
two  kings,  shall  be  set  by  the  American  governor  of  the  terri- 
tory. And  it  is  further  agreed  on  part  of  the  said  King  Keaby, 
that  no  foreigner  or  person  not  authorized  by  the  Maryland  State 
Colonization  Society,  shall  reside  in  or  make  trade  in  any  part  of 
said  territory,  other  than  that  made  with  canoes  without  the  bar 
of  the  river  Cavally.  And  further,  that  there  shall  never  be  in 
either  party  any  obstruction  to  the  free  passage  up  and  down, 
and  navigation  of  the  Cavally  river  with  any  craft  whatsoever. 
The  considerations  of  the  above  deed  are  as  follows,  viz. :  Find, 
The  above  named  privileges  of  mutual  defence ;  Secondly,  The 
advantages  accruing  from  trading  parts  being  established  in  the 
same  territory,  by  and  thro'  the  agent  of  the  Maryland  State 
Colonization  Society ;  Thirdly,  The  advantages  of  the  schools, 
which  the  children  of  the  native  inhabitants  shall  enjoy  in  com- 
mon with  the  American  children ;  Fourthly,  The  general  benefit 
which  the  said  Keaby,  executor  hereof,  foresees  will  result  to  his 
country,  and  the  inhabitants  thereof  from  intercourse  with  the 
American  people ;  Fifthly,  Such  presents  or  dashes  as  he  may 
hope  to  receive  from  the  colonial  agent  for  so  munificent  a 
donation. 

Signed :  JAMES  HALL,  Agt.  J/rf.  St.  Col.  Soc. 

KEABY  KING,        i  SI-AL.  \ 


101 


.Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  at  Robookah,  this  sixteenth  day 
of  October,  Eighteen  Hundred  and  Thirty-five,  in  presence  of 
NATHAN*  LEE  and  BAPHKO  KING. 


CONFIRMATION    BY   THE    HEADMEN    OF    ROBOOKAH    OF 
THE  FOREGOING  DEED. 

Robookah,  October  10,  1835. 

We,  Crah,  Jeammah,  Keikeh,  Evey,  Jinibly,  Headmen  for 
Robookah,  do  hereby,  in  presence  of  the  king  and  each  other, 
ratify  and  confirm  the  foregoing  contract  of  King  Barrah  Keaby 
with  James  Hall,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization 
Society,  and  bind  ourselves  and  adherents  to  observe  the  same. 

Signed  :  CRAH,  JEAMMAH,  KERKEH, 

EREH,  JIMBLY. 

BEX  KROKO,  Headman  and  King's  son, 
KAJEH,  Brother  for  river  king. 
BLAGNES,  Headman  far  small  toivn. 
KRABEH. 

Attest : 

NATHAN  LEE. 


CONFIRMATION  BY  THE  KTNQ  AND  HEADMEN  OF  PLORAH, 
&c.,  TO  THE  FOREGOING  DEED. 

Pforah,  October  21<rf,  1835. 


I,  Tourah,  liege  king  to  Barrah  Keaby,  over  the  country  called 
Bulyemah,  and  resident  of  Plorah,  and  we,  whose  names  are 
hereunto  affixed,  headmen  of  said  country,  do  hereby,  of  our  own 
free  will  and  accord,  ratify  and  confirm  the  foregoing  contract 
made  between  the  said  Barrah  Keaby  on  the  one  part,  and  James 
Hall,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  on  the 
other  part,  and  do  bind  ourselves,  our  dependents  and  successors 

14 


• 


102 

to  observe  the  same.     In  witness  whereof,  we  do  hereunto  set  our 
hands  and  affix  our  seals. 

Signed :  KING  TOUR  EH, 

QUEDO  WEAK,  Grand  deiil  king. 
MANIE,  King  Toureh's  mate. 
HOTOO,  Soldier  King  of  Floor  ah. 

LEJAMMAII,  Headman  of  Neatoh. 

J 

No  PLOH,  Gentleman  of  Plorah  and  Orator. 

TOJEH,  Headman  of  Bohoor. 

WARRAH,  Headman  of  Letoo. 

CR<;H,  Headman  of  Denah. 

NEAMMAH,  Headman  of  the  Wehnaiveh. 

SEAH,  Second  to  Lejammeh. 
Attest : 

NATHAN  LEE, 
LEAMMAH, 
NEH. 

CONFIRMATION  BY  THE  KING  AND  HEADMEN  OF  HAIDEE 

TO  THE  FOREGOING. 

Haidee,  October  23rd,  1835. 

I,  king  Gun-o-weh,  Liege  king  to  Barrah  Keaby,  of  the  Bulye- 
mah  country,  and  we  whose  names  are  hereunto  affixed,  headmen 
of  said  country,  do  hereby  of  our  own  free  will  and  accord,  ratify 
and  confirm  the  foregoing  contract  made  between  the  said  Barrah 
Keaby  and  James  Hall,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Coloniza- 
tion Society,  and  do  bind  ourselves,  our  dependents  and  successors 
to  observe  the  same. 

In  witness  whereof  we  have  hereunto  set  our  hands  and  affixed 
our  seals, 

Signed :         Kixo  GUN-O-WEH. 

JUO-EY,  King's  mate. 
JAMMAH,  Governor  of  Haidee. 


Attest  : 
NATHAN  LEE. 


103 

KEABEAH,  Half  Governor. 
PANAGEE-QUEEAH,  second  to  Keabeah. 
DADGA,  Orator. 
EDAH,  Soldier  King. 


Deed  No.  3. 

FROM  KING  NEAH  WEAK,  OF  BOWREH. 
Executed  the  25th  November,  1835. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  I,  Neah  "NVeah,  King  of 
Boureh  and  Half  Cavally,  and  we  whose  names  are  hereunto 
affixed,  headmen  of  said  Boureh,  do  hereby  grant,  deed  and  con- 
vey unto  James  Hall,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization 
Society,  and  by  and  through  him  to  said  Society,  the  territory 
now  under  our  jurisdiction  called  Boureh,  and  bounded  as  fol- 
lows, viz. :  Beginning  at  a  point  on  the  sand  beach,  about  one 
mile  west  of  Cavally  Point,  the  same  being  the  boundary  line 
between  Cavally  and  Grahway,  thence  running  in  a  north- 
easterly direction  to  the  Cavally  River,  thence  on  the  west 
side  of  the  Cavally  River  to  the  territory  occupied  by  Cragh, 
headman  of  Watta,  thence  in  a  line  running  nearly  south-west 
to  the  sea  beach,  about  four  miles  west  of  the  mouth  of  the 
Cavally  river,  thence  west  along  the  sea  beach,  about  four  miles 
to  the  point  of  starting,  including  the  whole  territory  possessed 
by  the  Bowreh  people  east  of  Cape  Palmas,  excepting  so  much 
thereof  as  is  at  present  occupied  as  town,  farm  lots  or  burying 
ground.  And  it  is  hereby  agreed  by  said  parties  that  the  same 
*hall  be  and  is  hereby  annexed  to,  and  becomes  a  part  of  the 
territory  now  belonging  to  the  Maryland  State  Colonization 
Society,  and  the  inhabitants  of  the  same  shall  unite  with  the 
American  colonists  in  defence  of  this,  their  common  country. 
Aud  it  is  further  agreed  that  all  palavers  arising  between  the 


104 


above  mimed  king  of  Bowreh,  or  any  of  his  subjects,  and  any 
other  king  or  the  subjects  of  another  king  belonging  to  the  terri- 
tory of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  shall  be  set  by  the  Agent  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  or  American  Governor  of 
the  Colony.  And  it  is  further  agreed  that  all  inhabitants  of 
Liberia,  Americans  or  natives,  of  what  tribe  soever,  shall  have 
the  free  right  of  passing  and  repassing  from  one  part  of  said  ter- 
ritory to  the  other  without  injury  or  molestation.  And  it  is 
further  agreed  that  no  foreigner  shall  be  permitted  to  reside  in  or 
make  trade  in  any  part  of  the  territory  now  ceded  to  the  Mary- 
land State  Colonization  Society  (always  excepting  the  canoe  trade 
with  foreign  vessels),  without  a  special  permit  from  the  American 
Governor. 

The  considerations  for  the  above  deed  are  as  follows  : 

Fir«t.  The  above-named  privileges  for  mutual  defence. 

Secondly.  The  advantages  arising  from  having  free  access  to  all 
trading  parts  which  shall  be  established  in  Man-land  in  Liberia. 

Thirdly.  The  advantages  of  schools,  which  the  children  of 
native  parents  shall  enjoy  in  common  with  the  American  children. 

Fourth.  The  general  benefit  which  will  result  to  the  native 
inhabitants  from  free  intercourse  with  the  American  colonists. 

Fifth.  Such  presents  as  the  colonial  agent  may  see  fit  to  make 
for  so  valuable  an  acquisition  of  territory. 

JAMES  HALL,  A.  M.  S.  C.  S., 

his 

KING  XEH,  or  WEAH,  x  mark 
Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  at  Half  Cavallv,  this  twenty-fifth 

his" 

day  of  November,  1835,  in  presence  of  NEH,  X  mark. 

EDDA  HAMEH,  alia*  JIM  WILSON,  Kiny's  Mate. 
XORVOO,  Headman  of  Half  Cavalfy. 
CRAHBI-X,  He<id  Gentleman  of  Half  Cacally. 
EDDAH  QUAN,  Headman  of  Xeatoh. 
X,  Head  Smith. 


105 

DOBBO,  Governor  of  Enbbo. 
WAH,  >Soldier  King. 

CAIREH,  TOBBO,  NEH,  BLUBB,  GEO,  HOVRO. 
CROGH,  NEAHMAH,  BOB  QUEAB,  CRAB,  LEAH. 
LAH-NA-TOO,  NAIMBOO,  JABBOO. 
HILLY-BOO-WEU,  Muss  NEANKO,  or  JIM  LIVER- 
POOL, Hedd  Trademen. 

• 

DABWEH. 


CONFIRMATION    BY  THE    HEADMEN    OF  GRAND   <  AVALLY. 

Grand  Caralhj,  We*t  Africa,  Mni/  'JO,  1-S:>4. 

We,  the  undersigned  Headmen  of  Grand  Cavally,  do,  by  these 
presents,  ratify  and  confirm  the  contract  made  by  our  king,  Joe 
Holland,  alias  Baphro,  in  conjunction  with  Will,  alia*  Bolio,  king 
of  Grahway,  and  Freeman,  alias  Pah  Neahmah,  king  of  Cape 
Palmas,  on  the  one  part,  and  James  Hall,  Agent  of  the  Maryland 
State  Colonization  Society  on  the  other  part,  deeding  and  convey- 
ing all  the  territory  now  possessed  or  holden  by  us  to  the  said 
Society,  reserving  so  much  thereof  as  is  now  under  cultivation,  or 
ig  occupied  by  us  as  towns  and  villages,  agreeable  to  the  deed 
executed  by  the  above-named  kings  at  Cape  Palmas,  on  the  thir- 
teenth day  of  February,  One  Thousand  Eight  Hundred  and 
Thirty -four. 

BARWON,  Governor  of  Cavally. 

TWEADAH,  Governor  Mate. 

TWAABEY,  Kiny>s  Adjutant. 

KALAH,  Soldier  King. 

NE-AH-BEY,  Head  trademan  for  River  Cavally. 

JULEH,  Kings  Month. 

Attest : 

ANTHONY  WOOD. 


106 


SUPPLEMENT  AFFIXED  TO  THE  DEED  OF  TERRITORY  FROM 

THE  KINGS  OF  CAPE  PALMAS,  GRAHWAY, 

AND    GRAND    CAVALLY. 

We,  whose  names  are  hereunto  affixed,  headmen  of  Cape 
Palmas,  Grahway  and  Grand  Cavally,  do  ratify  and  confirm  the 
foregoing  contract  made  by  our  sovereigns  with  James  Hall, 
Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  this  thirteenth 
day  of  February,  One  Thousand  Eight  Hundred  and  Thirty-four. 

U-AH-TOH,  Governor  of  Cape  Palmas. 
JUMBO,  Soldier  King. 
SEAH,  Gent.  Headman. 
KIBEOH,  Governor  of  Grahway  biy  town. 
GALAH,  king's  mate  and  Governor  of  Half  Grahway. 
SEEH,  Pioneer  of  the  Expedition. 
BALLY,  King's  mouth  or  Interpreter. 
NEH,  Palaver  house  man. 
ORAH,          " 
DEWEY,       "  " 

Attest : 

JAMES  M.  THOMPSON, 
GEO.  R.  McGiLL. 


Deed  No.  4. 

FROM  KING  GRA-KAW  OF  NEGAPOS. 
Executed  the  26th  December,  1835. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  I,  Gra-kaw,  one  of  the 
kings  of  Negahpos  people  (but  totally  free  and  independent  from 
all  the  kings  of  the  said  Negahpos,)  and  we,  whose  names  are 
hereunto  affixed,  Headmen  and  Governors  of  these  several  towns 
belonging  to  the  said  Gra-kaw,  do  hereby  deed  and  'convey  unto 


107 

James  Hall,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  of 
Maryland,  in  the  United  States  of  America,  all  the  territory  now 
within  our  jurisdiction,  and  bounded  as  follows:  South  and  south- 
west by  the  territory  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  ; 
west  by  the  territory  of  the  Gra-kaw,  or  King  Hevas'  people  ; 
north  by  King  Wah,  or  Treaboah  people ;  east  by  the  territory  of 
King  Xeh,  of  Denah,  and  of  King  Nehero.     To  have  and  to  hold 
the  same,  together  with   all   the   privileges   and  appurtenances 
thereof,  for  all  the  purposes  of  agriculture,  making  roads,  erecting 
dwellings,   &c.,   in   common   with    my  own   people,   the   present 
occupants,  always  reserving  the  part  now  occupied  and  tenanted 
by  us  as  towns,  villages,  or  grain  fields.     And  it  is  hereby  agreed 
by  the  said  parties,  that  the  same  is   hereby  annexed  to  and 
becomes  a  part  of  Maryland   in    Liberia,  and  the  inhabitants 
thereof  shall  all  unite  in  defence  of  this  their  common  territory. 
They  shall  also  be  equally  entitled  to  the  privileges  of  passing  and 
repassing  to  and  from  any  trading  parts  established  in  said  terri- 
tory of  Man-land  in  Liberia.     The  children  of  native  inhabitants 
shall  also,  in  common  with  those  of  American  parents,  enjoy  the 
privileges  of  attending  any  schools  established  in  the  territory. 
The  considerations  for  the  above  deed  of  gift  are  the  advantages 
which  will  accrue  to  the  country  from  this  arrangement,  and  such 
presents  and  dashes  as  the  said  James  Hall  shall  see  fit  to  make 
for  so  valuable  a  donation. 

The  foregoing  deed,  with  a  duplicate  thereof,  signed,  sealed  and 
delivered  at  Bluroh,  this  twTenty-sixth  day  of  December,  Eighteen 
Hundred  and  Thirty-five. 

GRA-KAW,  King. 

(\ /> 

JAMES  HALL,  Am.  St.  C.  S.  j  SEAL.  | 

O O 

TAI,  Gov.  of  Borroh. 

WRAH,   Gov.  of  Louree. 
COOTE,  Gov.  of  Juedo. 
BUNOH,  Gov.  of  Noa. 


108 

SOULEAH,  Gov.  of  Bueh 
BLLYEMAH,  Gov.  of 
OOREEII,  Gov.  of  Batteh. 
NEAMAH,  Gov.  of  Tuo. 

CAPREH,  Gov.  of  No. 
Witnessed  by : 

NEH,  Agency's  Krooman. 
WARROH,  Kiny  Fruwansbay. 


Deed  No.  5. 

FROM  KING  NEH  OF  DENAH. 
Executed  the  10</i  February,  1836. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  I,  Neh,  king  of  a  part  of 
the  Negapo  people,  dwelling  on  the  Cavally  river  (including 
Denah),  and  we,  whose  names  are  hereunto  affixed,  headmen  of 
said  territory,  do  hereby  grant,  deed  and  convey  unto  James  Hall, 
Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  of  Maryland, 
in  the  United  States  of  America,  and  by  and  through  him  to  said 
Society,  all  that  tract  of  territory  now  under  our  jurisdiction 
together  with  all  and  every  privilege  and  appurtenances  there- 
unto belonging,  said  territory  is  bounded  as  follows  :  South,  by 
the  territory  occupied  by  another  part  of  the  Negapo  people 
under  Yeabreh,  headman  of  Nopatea,  east,  by  the  Labou  people, 

about  thirty  miles  distant,  north,  by  the  Kings  Enerno  and , 

another  section  of  the  Negapos,  at  a  distance  from  Denah  of  ten 
miles  north-west  by  a  section  of  country  under  the  Negapos 
people  under  King  War,  about  fifteen  miles  distant  south-west 
and  west  by  the  territory  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization 
Society  purchased  by  one  part  of  the  Negapos  tribe  under  King 
Gra-kaw,  containing  in  all,  about  400  square  miles.  To  have 
and  to  hold  the  same  as  a  part  of  and  adjoining  the  Maryland 
State  Colonization  Society's  land,  viz. :  Maryland  in  Liberia. 


109 


And  it  is  hereby  agreed  by  the  said  parties  that  all  of  the 
inhabitants  thereof  shall  unite  with  the  inhabitants  of  Maryland 
ia  Liberia  for  their  mutual  security  and  defence.  That  all  pala- 
vers arising  between  any  king  of  the  above-named  territory,  and 
another  king  belonging  to  Maryland  in  Liberia,  or  between  any 
of  his  subjects,  and  the  subjects  of  any  other  king  belonging  to 
said  State  shall  be  subject  to  the  decision  of  the  Home  Agent  of 
said  Society,  or  the  Governor  of  the  American  Colony.  Also, 
that  all  the  inhabitants  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  either  natives  or 
Americans,  shall  have  the  free  right  and  privilege  of  passing  and 
repassing  through  any  part  of  said  Maryland  in  Liberia,  and 
have  free  access  to  all  trading  parts  established  in  said  territory. 
AJso,  that  the  native  inhabitants  of  the  country  so  ceded  shall 
enjoy  all  the  rights  and  privileges  of  schooling  in  common  with 
the  American  colonists.  The  considerations  for  the  above  grant 
are  the  advantages  that  will  result  to  the  country  from  the 
schools,  trading  ports,  mutual  protection,  and  the  many  great 
benefits  that  will  accrue  from  free  intercourse  with  civilized 
people.  Also,  such  satisfactory  presents  as  we  at  this  time 
acknowledge  to  have  received  from  the  Agent  of  the  Maryland 
State  Colonization  Society. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered,  with  a  duplicate  hereof,  at  Harper, 
this  10th  February,  1836. 

his 

RHEA  X   XEH,  King  of  Denah. 

mark 

JAMES  HALL,  Agent  Md.  St.  Col.  Soc. 

WAA-MEH,  X  Town  Orator. 

MA  YOU,  X  Headman  of  Denah. 

CRAHBLEH,  X  Gortrnor  of  Yeabreh. 

TOOMOO,  X  of  Xoah. 

QUO-QUO,  X       "         of  Denah. 
In  presence  of: 
OLIVER  HOLMES,  JR.,  and 
JAMES  M.  THOMPSON. 
15 


110 
Deed  No.  6,  of  Rock  Town. 

FROM  KING  YEAH. 
Executed  April  list,  1837. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  I,  Gray,  the  true  and 
lawful  king  of  Rock  Town,  and  Frah,  Governor  of  said  country 
(sometimes  called  Cape  Palmas),  do,  by  these  presents,  grant, 
deed  and  convey  unto  Jno.  B.  Kusswurrn,  as  Agent  of  the  Mary- 
land State  Colonization  Society,  and  through  and  by  him  to  the 
said  Society,  the  territory  now  under  our  authority  called  Rock 
Town  (alias  Tah),  and  bounded  as  follows,  viz. :  Beginning  at 
the  Cocoa-nut  tree  near  the  beach,  the  northern  boundary  of  the 
American  settlement  at  Cape  Palmas,  thence  running  parallel 
with  the  seaboard,  about  six  miles,  more  or  less  in  a  northern 
direction  to  a  point  called  Bleableah-Tawah,  which  divides  it 
from  Fish  Town.  Thence  running  in  a  north-east  direction 
(point  of  compass  not  known),  half  a  day's  journey,  or  about 
sixteen  miles  to  the  country  called  Saurogah,  governed  by  King  . 
Warrah,  and  thence  in  a  south-east  direction  to  the  intervening 
line  between  this  territory  and  the  American  settlement  men- 
tioned above,  and  from  thence  to  the  Cocoa-nut  tree  above 
mentioned  in  a  south-west  direction,  to  have  and  to  hold  the 
same  in  common  with  our  people,  and  to  occupy  any  part  thereof 
not  now  in  actual  use  as  a  town,  village  or  farm  with  all  the 
privileges  and  appurtenances  thereunto  belonging  forever. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  by  said  parties,  that  the  inhabitants  of 
the  above  named  country,  and  the  king  and  governor  thereof, 
and  the  American  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  shall  unite 
their  forces  in  defence  of  their  common  country,  and  of  the  terri- 
tory already  belonging  to  the  Maryland  Colonization  Society  in 
Africa,  to  which  this  is  now  annexed.  And  it  is  further  agreed 
that  all  palavers  arising  between  any  two  kings  residing  in  Mary- 
land in  Liberia  between  the  subjects  of  any  two  kings  shall  be  set 
by  the  American  Governor  of  the  territory. 


Ill 


And  it  is  further  agreed  on  the  part  of  the  said  King  Gray  and 
Governor  Traho,  that  no  foreigner  or  person  not  authorized  by 
the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  shall  reside  in  or  make 
trade  in  any  part  of  said  territory,  other  than  that  made  in  canoes 
with  vessels  in  offing. 

And  further,  that  there  shall  never  be,  in  either  party,  any 
obstruction  to  a  free  passage  through  their  respective  territories, 
either  by  land  or  water. 

The  considerations  for  the  above  deed  are  as  follows : 

First.  The  above  named  privileges  of  mutual  defence. 

Second.  The  advantages  from  trading  ports  being  established 
in  said  territory,  and  through  the  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State 
Colonization  Society. 

Third.  The  advantages  of  schools,  which  the  children  of  the 
native  inhabitants  shall  enjoy  in  common  with  American 
children. 

Fourth.  The  general  benefit  which  the  said  King  Gray  and 
Governor  Frah,  executors  hereof,  foresee  will  result  to  their 
country,  and  the  inhabitants  thereof,  from  intercourse  with 
American  colonists. 

Fifth.  Such  presents  or  dashes  as  they  may  hope  to  receive 
from  the  colonial  agent  for  deeding  the  above-named  terri- 
tory. 

And  further,  it  is  understood  by  the  contracting  parties  that 
nothing  contained  in  this  deed  shall  in  any  way  interfere  with 
any  former  deed  or  conveyance  which  may  have  been  given  to 
the  Rev.  J.  L.  Wilson,  as  Agent  of  the  American  Board  of  Com- 
missioners for  Foreign  Missions,  for  the  purpose  of  establishing 
schools  within  said  territory. 

O — O 

JNO.  B.  RUSSWURM,  A.  Md.  S.  C.  ft.   J  ss  f 

C — \> 

GRAY,  King,  I  *  :-  I 

O O 

FRAH,  Governor,  I  ss. 


112 


/Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  at  Rock  Town,  this  twenty-first 
day  of  April,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  One  Thousand  Eight 
Hundred  and  Thirty-seven. 
In  presence  of: 
G.  R.  McGiLL, 
SAMUEL  EDEN, 

his 

JACK  X  WILSON. 

mark. 

Rock  To-wn,  April  21«f,  1837. 

We,  Veah,  Duah,  Xeemah,  Jr.,  Trah  and  Neemah,  Sr.,  head- 
men for  Rock  Town,  do,  hereby  in  the  presence  of  the  King, 
Governor  and  each  other,  ratify  and  confirm  the  foregoing  contract 
of  King  Gray  and  Governor  Frah  with  Jno.  B.  Riir«swurm, 
Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  and  bind  our- 
selves to  observe  the  same. 

his 

VEAH,  X 

mark, 
hii 

DUAH,  X 

mark, 
his 

NEEMAH,  JR.,  X 

mark, 
his 

TUAH,  X 

mark, 
his 

NEEMAH,  SR.    X 

mark. 

Attest : 

GEORGE  R.  McGiLL, 
SAMUEL  EDEN, 

bis 

TOM  X  PRINCE. 

mark. 


Deed  No.  7,  of  Bassa. 

FROM  KING  NIMLEE  AND  GOVERNOR  OF  BASSA  COUNTRY. 
Executed  February  24th,  A.  D.,  Itf-ib'. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  we,  King  Nimlee  and 
Governor  Yellow  Will,  the  true  and  lawful  King  and  Governor 


113 

of  Bassa  Country,  do,  by  these  presents,  grant,  deed  and  convey  to 
Jno.  B.  Russwurm,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization 
Society,  and  through  and  by  him  to  said  Society,  the  territory 
now  under  our  jurisdiction  called  Bassa,  and  bounded  as  follows : 

Beginning  at  Bassa  river  and  extending  along  the  beach  to , 

east,  by  the  Atlantic  ocean  ;  west,  by  Labou  and  Taioh  nation  of 
Bushmen  ;  north,  by  the  Taioh 's  and  other  Bush  tribes,  and  south, 
by  the  Atlantic  ocean. 

To  have  and  to  hold  the  same  in  common  with  our  own  people, 
and  to  occupy  any  part  thereof  not  now  in  actual  use  as  a  town, 
or  farm  with  all  the  appurtenances  thereunto  belonging  forever. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  by  said  parties  that  the  inhabitants  of 
the  above-named  country,  the  King  and  Governor  thereof,  and 
the  American  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  shall  unite  their 
forces  in  defence  of  their  common  country  and  the  territory 
already  belonging  to  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  in 
Africa,  to  which  this  is  now  annexed. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  that  all  palavers  arising  between  any 
two  kings  residents  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  or  between  the  sub- 
jects of  any  two  kings  shall  be  set  by  the  American  Governor  of 
the  colony. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  on  the  part  of  the  above  King  Nimlee 
and  Governor  Yellow  Hill,  that  no  foreigner  not  authorized  by 
the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  or  other  persons  shall 
reside  in  or  make  trade  in  any  part  of  said  territory,  other  than 
that  made  in  canoes  with  vessels  in  the  offing. 

And  further,  that  there  shall  never  be,  in  either  party,  any 
obstructions  to  a  free  passage  through  their  respective  territories, 
either  by  land  or  sea. 

The  considerations  of  the  above  deed  are  as  follows : 

First.  The  above-named  privileges  of  mutual  defence. 

Second.  The  advantages  accruing  from  trading  posts  being 
established  in  said  territory,  by  and  through  the  Agent  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society. 


114 


Third.  The  advantages  of  schools,  which  the  children  of 
the  native  inhabitants  shall  enjoy  in  common  with  American 
children. 

Fourth.  The  general  benefit  which  the  said  King  Nimlee  and 
Governor  Yellow  Hill,  executors  hereof,  foresee  will  result  to  their 
country,  and  the  people  thereof,  from  intercourse  with  American 
colonists. 

Fifth.  Such  dashes  tvs  they  may  hope  to  receive  from  the 
Colonial  Agent  for  deeding  said  territory. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  at  Bassa,  King  George's  Town, 
this  twenty-fourth  day  of  February,  A.  D.  1846. 

Jxo.  B.  RUSSWURM,  A.  Md.  St.  8. 
NIMLEE,  King,  X 
YELLOW  WILL,  Gov. 
In  presence  of: 
TRUMAN,  King,  X 
YELLOW  WILL,  X 

D.  E.  McFARLAND, 

JNO.  BANKS. 

We,  Pouch,  Barren  and  Brah,  Headmen  of  Bassa,  do  hereby, 
in  the  presence  of  the  King  and  Governor  and  each  other,  ratify 
and  confirm  the  foregoing  contract  with  Jno.  B.  Russwurm, 
A.  M.  S.  C.  S.,  and  bind  ourselves  and  adherents  to  observe  the 
same. 

POUCH,      X 
BARRAH, X 
BRAH,       X 
JEUEII.      X 
In  presence  of: 
TRUMAN,  King. 
YELLOW  WILL. 


115 
Deed  No.  8,  of    Tahoe. 

FROM  KING  GEORGE. 
Executed  February  "24th,  1846. 

I,  King  George,  the  true  and  lawful  king  of  the  country  of 
Tahoe,  do,  by  these  presents,  grant,  deed,  and  convey  unto  John 
B.  Russwurm,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society, 
and  through  and  by  him  to  said  Society,  the  territory  now  under 
my  authority,  called  and  bounded  as  follows,  viz. :  East  by  the 
Atlantic  ocean  and  river  Padro ;  west  by  Grand  Berriby  and 
Yappo  nation  of  bushxnen  ;  north  by  the  Europoh  nation  of  bush- 
men  ;  and  south  by  the  Atlantic  ocean. 

To  have  and  to  hold  the  same  in  common  with  our  own  people, 
and  to  occupy  any  part  thereof  not  now  in  actual  use  as  a  town, 
farm  or  village,  with  all  the  privileges  and  appurtenances  there- 
unto belonging  forever. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  by  the  said  parties  that  the  inhabitants 
of  the  above-named  country  and  the  kings  thereof,  and  American 
citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  shall  unite  their  forces  in  defence 
of  their  common  country  and  of  the  territory  already  belonging  to 
the  Maryland  Colonization  Societv  in  Africa,  to  which  this  is  now 

»  «/ 

annexed. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  that  all  palavers  arising  between  any 
two  kings  residing  in  Man-land  in  Liberia,  or  between  the  sub- 
jects of  any  two  kings,  shall  be  set  by  the  American  Governor  of 
the  territory. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  on  the  part  of  the  said  King  George 
that  no  foreigner  or  person  not  authorized  by  the  Maryland  State 
Colonization  Society  shall  reside  in  or  make  trade  in  any  part  of 
said  territory  other  than  that  made  in  canoes  with  vessels  in  the 
offing. 

And  further  that  there  shall  never  be,  in  either  party,  any 
ol)struction  to  a  free  passage  through  their  respective  territories 
either  bv  land  or  water. 


116 

The  considerations  for  the  above  deed  are  as  follows  : 

First.  The  above-named  privileges  of  mutual  defence. 

Second.  The  advantages  accruing  from  trading  posts  being 
established  in  said  territory  by  and  through  the  Agent  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society. 

Third.  The  advantages  of  schools,  which  the  children  of  the 
native  inhabitants  shall  enjoy  in  common  with  American 
children. 

Fourth.  The  general  benefit  which  the  said  King  George, 
executor  hereof,  foresees  will  result  to  their  country,  and  the 
inhabitants  thereof,  from  intercourse  with  American  colonists. 

Fifth.  Such  presents  or  dashes  as  they  may  hope  to  receive 
from  the  Colonial  Agent  for  ceding  above  territory. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  at  Town  of  Bassa  (King  George's), 
this  twenty -fourth  day  of  February,  A.  D.,  1846. 

In  presence  of: 
J>*o.  BANKS, 

D.  C.  McFARLAND. 

Toifn  ofBcusa,  February  24th,  1846. 

We,  Hugo,  Seah  and  Gerah,  headmen  of  Tahoe,  do,  hereby  in 
the  presence  of  our  kings  and  each  other,  ratify  and  confirm  the 
preceding  contract  with  Jno.  B.  Russwurm,  Agent  of  the  Mary- 
land State  Colonization  Society,  and  bind  ourselves  and  adherents 
to  observe  them. 

HAGO  SEAH, 
GERAH. 
In  presence  of: 
TRUMAX,  King, 
YELLOW  WILL. 


117 


Deed  No.  8,  of  Grand  Berriby. 

. 

FROM  KING  DARBO  AND  KING  TOM. 

• 

Executed  February  23d,  1846. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  we,  King  Darbo  and 
King  Tom,  the  true  and  lawful  Kings  of  Grand  Berriby  : 

Do  by  these  presents,  grant,  deed  and  convey  unto  Juo.  B. 

" 

Russwurm,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society, 
and  through  and  by  him  to  said  Society,  the  territory  now  under 
our  authority  and  bounded  as  follows,  viz  :  East,  by  the  Atlantic 
ocean ;  west,  by  Half  Berriby  and  Majo  najo  nation  of  Bushmen  ; 
north,  by  the  Yappo  nation  of  Bushmen,  and  south,  by  the 
Atlantic  ocean. 

To  have  and  to  hold  the  same  in  common  with  our  own  people, 
and  to  occupy  any  part  thereof  not  now  in  actual  use  as  a  town, 
village  or  farm  with  all  the  privileges  and  appurtenances  there- 
unto belonging  forever. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  by  said  parties  that  the  inhabitants  of  . 
the  above  country,  and  the  King  and  Governor  thereof,  and 
American  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  shall  unite  their  forces 
in  defence  of  their  common  country,  and  of  the  territory  already 
belonging  to  the  Maryland  Colonization  Society  in  Africa,  to 
which  this  is  now  annexed ;  and  it  is  further  agreed  that  all  pala- 
vers arising  between  any  two  kings  residing  in  Maryland  in 
Liberia,  or  between  the  subjects  of  any  two  kings  shall  be  set  by 
the  American  Governor  of  the  territory. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  on  the  part  of  the  said  King  Darbo 
and  King  Tom : 

That  no  foreigner  or  person  not  authorized  by  the  Maryland 
State  Colonization  Society  shall  reside  in  or  make  trade  in  any 
part  of  said  territory,  other  than  that  made  in  canoes  with  vessels 
in  the  offing. 

16 


118 

.And  further,  that  there  shall  never  be,  in  either  party,  any 
obstructions  to  a  free  passage  through  their  respective  territories, 
either  by  land  or  water. 

The  considerations  for  the  above  deed  are  as  follows : 
First.  The  above-named  privileges  of  mutual  defence. 
Second.  The   advantages   accruing   from   trading   posts   being 
established  in  said  territory,  by  and  through  the  Agent  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society. 

Third.  The  advantages  of  schools,  which  the  children  of  the 
native  inhabitants  shall  enjoy  in  common  with  the  American 
children. 

Fourth.  The  general  benefit  which  the  said  King  Darbo  and 

King  Tom,  executors  hereof,  foresee  will  result  to  their  country,  and 

the  inhabitants  thereof  from  intercourse  with  American  colonists. 

Fifth.  Such  presents  or  dashes  as  they  may  hope  to  receive 

from  the  Colonial  Agent  for  ceding  above-named  territory. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  at  Bassa  Town,  King  George's,  this 
twenty -third  February,  A.  D.  1846. 

JNO.  B.  RUSSWURM, 

Governor  Md.  Liberia. 
DARBO  KING,  -f-  0 

In  presence  of:  TOM  KING,  +  0 

D.  C.  MC-FARLAND, 
JOHN  BANKS, 
TRUMAN  KING,  + 

We,  Neemah,  Governor,  and  Crah,  headmen  of  Grand  Berriby, 
do,  hereby  in  the  presence  of  our  kings  and  each  other,  ratify  and 
confirm  the  preceding  contract  with  J.  B.  Russwurm,  Agent  of 
the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  and  bind  ourselves 

and  adherents  to  observe  them. 

XEMAH,  Gov.  + 

In  presence  of:  CRAH,  Headman,  -(- 

TRUMAN  KING,  -f- 
YELLOW  WILL.  + 


119 
Deed  No.  9,  of  Berriby. 

FROM  Ol'RIPPI  AND  HUGO,  GOVERNOR. 
Executed  March  13th,  1846. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  we,  Ourippi,  alias  King 
William,  and  Hugo,  Governor,  the  true  and  lawful  King  and 
Governor  of  Half  Berriby  : 

Do,  by  these  presents,  grant,  deed,  and  convey  unto  John  B. 
Russwurm,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society, 
and  through  and  bv  him  to  said  Societv,  the  territory"  now  under 

«/  V        '  * 

our  authority,  called  and  bounded  as  follows,  viz. :  East  by  the 
Atlantic  ocean  ;  west  by  the  Mago  and  Ourappo  nations  of  bush- 
men  ;  north  bv  the  Hennah  nation  bushmen,  and  south  by  the 

»  «/ 

Atlantic  ocean. 

To  have  and  to  hold  the  same  in  common  with  our  own  people, 
and  to  occupy  any  part  thereof  not  now  in  actual  use  as  a  town, 
village,  farm,  with  all  the  privileges  and  appurtenances  thereunto 
belonging,  forever. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  by  said  parties  that  the  inhabitants  of 
the  above  country,  and  the  King  and  Governor  thereof,  and  the 
American  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  shall  unite  their  forces 
in  defence  of  their  common  country  and  of  the  territory  already 
belonging  to  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  in  Africa  : 
to  which  this  is  now  annexed. 

,  And  it  is  further  agreed  that  all  palavers  arising  between  any 
two  kings  residing  in  Maryland  in  Liberia,  or  between  the  sub- 
jecte  of  any  two  kings,  shall  be  set  by  the  American  Governor  of 
the  territory. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  on  the  part  of  the  said  King  and 
Governor,  that  no  foreigner  or  person  not  authorized  by  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  shall  reside  in  or  make 
trade  in  any  part  of  ."aid  territory,  other  than  that  made  in  canoes 
with  vessels  in  the  offinjj. 

O 


120 

And  further,  that  there  shall  never  be,  in  either  party,  any 
obstruction  to  a  free  passage  through  their  respective  territories, 
either  by  land  or  water. 

The  considerations  of  the  above  deed  are  as  follows: 

Fir#t.  The  above-named  privileges  of  mutual  defence. 

Second.  The  advantages  accruing  from  trading  posts  being 
established  in  said  territory  by  and  through  the  Agent  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society. 

Third.  The  advantages  of  schools,  which  the  children  of  the 
native  inhabitants  shall  enjoy  in  common  with  American  children. 

Fourth.  The  general  benefit  which  the  said  King  and  Governor, 
executors  hereof,  foresee  will  result  to  their  country  and  the 
inhabitants  thereof,  from  intercourse  with  American  colonists. 

Fifth.  Such  presents  or  dashes  as  they  may  hope  to  receive 
from  the  Colonial  Agent  for  ceding  the  above-named  territory. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  at  Cape  Palmas,  this  13th  of 
March,  A.  D.  One  Thousand  Eight  Hundred  and  Forty-six. 

JNO.  B.  RUSSWURM. 

A.  Md.  S.  C.  S. 
WILLIAM,  King,  -j- 

HUGO,  Governor.  -f- 
In  presence  of: 

TRUMAN,  King,  + 
YELLOW  WILL,  + 
W.  A.  PROUT. 

Cape  Palma*,  March  13th,  1846. 

We,  Xeah  and  Xepah,  Headmen  of  Half  Berriby,  do  hereby, 
in  the  presence  of  our  King  and  Governor  and  each,  ratify  and 
confirm  the  preceding  contract  with  John  B.  Russwurm,  A.  Md. 
S.  Col.  Society,  and  bind  ourselves  and  adherents  to  observe  them. 

NEAH,  Headman,  -f- 

NEPAH,       "          + 
In  presence  of: 

TRUMAN,  King,  -\- 
YELLOW  WILL. 


121 


Deed  No.  10,  of  Tabou. 

FROM   KING    GEORGE,    OF  BASSA ;    KING    GEORGE   MACAU- 
LEY,  OF  G.  TABOU,  AND  KING  CRAH,  OF  TABOU  RIVER. 

Executed  March  13th,  1846. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents :  that  we,  King  George,  of 
Bassa;  King  George  Macauley,  of  G.  Tabou,  and  King  Crah,  of 
Tabou  River,  the  true  and  lawful  kings  of  the  country  of  Tabou : 
Do,  by  these  presents,  grant,  deed  and  convey  unto  John  B. 
Russwurm,  Agent  of  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society, 
and  through  and  by  him  to  said  Society,  the  territory  now 
under  our  authority,  called  and  bounded  as  follows,  \h. :  East 
by  Bassa  country  and  the  Atlantic  ocean  ;  west  by  Barbo  country 
and  Taps  nation ;  north  by  Tarah  nation  and  Bushman,  and 
south  by  the  Atlantic  ocean. 

To  have  and  to  hold  the  same  in  common  with  our  own  people, 
and  to  occupy  any  part  thereof  not  now  in  actual  use  as  a  town, 
village,  farm,  with  all  the  privileges  and  appurtenances  thereunto 
belonging,  forever. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  by  said  parties  that  the  inhabitants  of 
the  above  country  and  the  kings  and  headmen  thereof,  and  the 
American  citizens  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  shall  unite  their  forces 
in  defence  of  their  common  country  and  of  the  territory  already 
belonging  to  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  in  Africa, 
to  which  this  is  now  annexed. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  that  all  palavers  arising  between  any 
two  kings  residing  in  Maryland  in  Liberia,  or  between  the  sub- 
jects of  any  two  kings,  shall  be  set  by  the  American  Governor  of 
the  territory. 

And  it  is  further  agreed  on  the  part  of  the  said  Kings  George, 
G.  Macauley  and  Crah,  that  no  foreigner,  or  person  not  author- 
ized by  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  shall  reside  in 
or  make  trade  in  any  part  of  said  territory,  other  than  that  made 
in  canoes  with  vessels  in  the  offing. 


122 


,  And  further,  that  there  shall  never  be,  in  either  party,  any 
obstruction  to  a  free  passage  through  their  respective  territories, 
either  by  land  or  water. 

The  considerations  of  the  above  deed  are  as  follows: 

Firxt.  The  above-named  privileges  of  mutual  defence. 

Second.  The  advantages  accruing  from  trading  posts  being 
established  in  said  territory,  by  and  through  the  Agent  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society. 

Third.  The  advantages  of  schools,  which  the  children  of  the 
native  inhabitants  shall  enjoy  in  common  with  American  chil- 
dren. 

Fourth.  The  general  benefit  which  the  said  Kings  George,  G. 
Macauley  and  Crah,  executors  hereof,  foresee  will  result  to  their 
country  and  the  inhabitants  thereof,  from  intercourse  with 
American  colonists. 

Fifth.  Such  presents  or  dashes  as  they  may  hope  to  receive 
from  the  Colonial  Agent  for  ceding  the  above-named  territory. 

Signed,  scaled  and  delivered  at  Cape  Palmas,  this  13th  of 
March,  A.  D.  One  Thousand  Eight  Hundred  and  Forty-six. 

Jxo.  B.  RrsswTKM,  Ayt.  Md.  S.  C.So. 

GKORGE,  King,  X 

GEORCJK  MACAULKY,  King,  X 

CRAH,  King,  X 
In  presence  of: 
KING  TRUMAX, 
YELLOW  WILL, 
D.  C.  MI-FARLAX, 
Jxo.  BAXKS. 

Town  »f  fin**!/,  Khiy  George's,  February  2'}d,  1*46. 

We,  Weah,  Governor,  Xemah  and  Yakuh,  headmen  of  Tabou 
River,  Grand  Tabou  and  Bassa,  do  hereby,  in  the  presence  of  our 
kings  and  each  other,  ratify  and  confirm  the  preceding  contract 


123 


with  J.  B.  Russwurm,  Agt.  Md.  St.  C.  Society,  and  bind  ourselves 
and  adherents  to  observe  them. 

WEAK,  Governor  T. 

NEMAH,        "         Tnbon, 

YAKUH,        "        Bassa. 
Attest : 

TRUEMAX,  King,  X 
YELLOW  WILL.     X 


Deed  No.  n,  of   Garraway. 

FROM    BLACK    WILL,    ANDREW    LAWSON,     DORP, A  IT,    HALF 

GARRAWAY,  WHEREBOH  AND  YOIRRAII,  KINUS  AND 

HEADMEN  OF  THE  GARRAWAY  COUNTRY. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents:  that,  for  the  consideration 

hereafter  mentioned,  we,  Black  Will,  Andrew  Lawson,  Dobbah, 

half  Garraway,  Whereboh  and  Yoirrah,  Kings  and  headmen  of 

the   Garraway  country,  have   granted   and   sold,   and   by  these 

presents  do  grant  and  sell  to  the  Maryland  State  Colonization 

Society  of  Maryland,  in  the  United  States  of  North  America,  the 

following  tract  of  land,  of  which  we  are  at  this  time  lawfully 

seized  by  right  of  possession  and  descent.     Beginning  at  a  point 

north,  at  Poor  river  on  the  beach,  from  thence  running  into  the 

interior  eastwardly  on  the  south  side  of  said  Poor  river  to  the 

Trimbah  country  to  a  point ;  thence  running  in  a  line  separating 

the  Trimbah  country,  Tabareah,  Boloboh  and  Urabah  territory 

south  to  Fish  Town  river  to  a  point ;  thence  running  along  said 

river  in  a  line  west  to  the  beach  to  a  point ;  thence  running  in  a 

line  north-westwardly  on  the  sea  beach  to  the  point  of  starting. 

Including  all  the  rivers,  bays,  creeks,  timbers  and  mines  on  the 
same,  excepting  so  much  of  said  territory  as  is  now  under  cultiva- 
tion by  the  inhabitants  thereof,  or  such  places  as  may  be  occupied 
by  us  or  our  descendants  as  towns  or  villages,  reserving  also  the 
right  of  passing  up  and  down  all  rivers  and  creeks,  and  of 


124 

traversing  all  sections  of  country  not  inhabited  by  colonists,  the 
said  Society  to  have  and  to  hold  the  said  territory  for  its  special 
benefit  and  behoof.  And  we  do  agree  to  warrant  and  defend  the 
same  against  the  claim  of  all  persons  whatever.  And  it  shall 
have  power  by  its  Agent  to  exercise  all  authority  in  the  above- 
named  territory,  and  we  hereby  acknowledge  ourselves  members 
of  the  Colony  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  so  far  as  to  unite  in  its 
common  defence  in  case  of  war  or  foreign  aggression. 

And  I,  the  said  John  B.  Russwurm,  in  the  name  of  said  Society, 
do  hereby  guarantee  to  the  said  kings  and  their  descendants  the 
above  reserved  rights  ;  and  further,  that  neither  themselves  or 
property  shall  be  trespassed  upon,  or  molested  in  any  way  what- 
ever, and  no  lands  under  cultivation  nor  towns  nor  villages  shall 
be  taken  from  them  except  by  special  contract,  paying  the  desired 
remuneration  therefor. 

\Ve  also  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  the  following  articles  of 
merchandise  from  John  B.  Russwurm,  Agent  of  the  said  Society 
and  Governor  of  said  territory,  as  full  and  ample  compensation 
therefor  : 

One  Hhd.  Tobacco.  Twenty  ps.  Cloth. 

One  Box  Cutlasses.  Twenty  Muskets. 

One  Keg  Flints.  Ten  large  Kegs  Powder. 

Two  Boxes  Pipes.  Ten  Black  Hats. 

Fifty  Iron  Bars. 

This  instrument,  with  the  triplicate  hereof,  is  executed  at  Gar- 
raway,  this  tenth  day  of  August,  A.  D.  O^e  Thousand  Eight 
Hundred  and  Fortv-uine. 

• 

BLACK  WILL,  his  X 
DOBBAH,  his  X 

WHEREBAH,  his  X 
YOURAH,  his  X 

In  presence  of:  YOIRRAH,  his  X 

J.  H.  STEWART, 

CHARLES  H.  LEE, 

YELLOW  WILL,  his  X 


125 


We,  whose  names  are  affixed,  Headmen  of  Garraway  Town?, 
do  ratit'v  and  confirm  the  foregoing  contracts  made  by  our 
Governors  and  Kings  with  John  B.  Russwurm,  Agent  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  this  tenth  day  of  August 
A.  D.  One  Thousand  Eight  Hundred  and  Forty-nine. 

YEBOII,  his  X 

Tow  WEAH,  his  X 

GK.SSAU<;H,  his  X 

BLANYAH,  his  X 


THE  AGREEMENT  WHICH  MADE  MARYLAND 
IN  LIBERIA  INDEPENDENT. 


Whereas  the  people  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  have  represented  to 
the  Man-land  State  Colonization  Society,  that  it  is  their  desire, 
and  that  it  will,  in  their  opinion,  materially  promote  their  welfare, 
to  dissolve  all  political  connection  with  or  subordination  to  the 
said  Society,  and  with  that  view  have,  with  the  full  consent  and 
approbation  of  the  Society,  formed  for  themselves  a  Constitution 
and  Form  of  Government,  under  which,  when  the  same  shall 
have  been  fully  ratified  and  adopted,  they  design  to  declare  them- 
selves a  Free,  Sovereign  and  Independent  State  ; 

And  whereat  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  having 
in  their  establishment  of  the  colony  at  Cape  Palmas,  and  in  their 
government  of  the  same,  been  always  desirous  to  improve  the 
condition  of  the  free  people  of  color  of  Maryland,  by  placing  them 
in  a  position  in  which  they  would  find  no  obstacles  in  the  way  of 
their  advancement ;  and  the  Society  whilst  recognizing  with  hum- 
ble gratitude  to  the  Giver  of  all  good,  in  the  present  condition 
and  future  prospects  of  the  people  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  the 
blessings  which  have  thus  far  crowned  their  labors,  humbly 

17 


126 


trust  that  the  change  now  proposed  to  be  made  in  the  relations 
between  the  Society  and  the  people,  may  still  further  advance  the 
prosperity  of  those  for  whose  welfare  they  have  labored. 

And  ich?ref.i8,  in  severing  the  political  connection  heretofore  exist- 
ing between  the  said  Society  and  the  people  of  Maryland  in  Liberia, 
it  is  necessary  and  proper  to  enter  into  an  arrangement  in  reference 
to  the  public  and  other  property  in  Maryland  in  Liberia,  now 
belonging  to  the  Society  ;  for  which  purpose  William  A.  Prout 
and  William  Cassell  have  been  duly  appointed  by  the  people  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia  commissioners  to  confer  with  the  Society. 

Now,  therefore,  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  on  the 
one  part,  and  William  A.  Prout  and  William  Cassell,  Commissioners 
of  the  people  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  on  the  other  part,  have,  on 
this  fourteenth  day  of  February,  in  the  year  of  Our  Lord,  One 
Thousand  Eight  Hundred  and  Fifty-four,  in  the  City  of  Balti- 
more, entered  into  the  following  agreement,  which,  if  duly  ratified 
within  the  space  of  twelve  months  by  the  government  which  may 
be  established  by  the  people  of  Man-land  in  Liberia,  shall  be 
binding  both  on  the  said  Society  and  on  the  said  government  and 
people,  to  wit : 

ARTICLE  I. — The  Society  hereby  agrees  to  cede  all  its  public  lands 
within  the  limits  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  to  the  people  and  govern- 
ment of  that  Republic,  subject  to  the  following  provisions,  viz. : 

Flr-<t.  The  Government  shall  allow  to  all  future  emigrants  out  of 
any  unoccupied  or  unsold  lands,  instead  of  the  quantity  heretofore 
allowed  by  the  regulations  of  the  Society,  a  farm  lot  of  ten  acres, 
or  a  town  lot  of  one  quarter  of  an  acre  in  any  new  settlement 
that  may  hereafter  be  made  ;  or  ten  acres  for  a  farm  lot  in  the 
present  settlement,  the  town  lot  being  the  same  as  heretofore,  viz., 
an  eighth  of  an  acre ;  and  when  the  Government  sells  any  of  the 
public  lands,  every  alternate  lot  or  farm,  or  section  or  square 
mile,  shall  be  left  unsold,  to  be  assigned  to  emigrants. 

Second.  All  sales  .shall  be  at  auction,  to  the  highest  bidder. 
Lands  after  having  been  offered  at  auction  and  unsold,  may  be 
sold  at  private  sale,  not  below  a  price  to  be  fixed  by  law. 


Third.  The  tracts  reserved  fur  emigrants  may,  with  the  assent 
of  the  Society,  be  exchanged  for  others  of  equal  value,  or  sold 
and  the  proceeds  devoted  to  the  purposes  of  education. 

Fourth.  The  Government  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  shall  appro- 
priate at  least  ten  per  cent,  of  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  of  public 
lands  to  school  or  educational  purposes. 

Fifth.  The  Society  shall  retain  the  right  of  locating  emigrants 
in  anv  of  the  present  settlements,  or  in  any  new  settlement  that 
may  be  made. 

Sixth.  Xew  settlements  are  to  be  formed  by  the  concurrence 
and  agreement  of  the  Government  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  and 
the  .Society. 

Seventh.  The  lands  held  by  the  State  for  the  occupancy  of 
emigrants  shall  be  exempt  from  taxation. 

Eighth.  If  the  Government  of  the  United  States  shall  at  any 
time  determine  to  send  to  Maryland  in  Liberia  recaptured 
Africans,  the  Society  shall  thereupon  have  the  right  to  claim,  and 
to  have  immediately  set  apart  for  their  use,  by  the  Government 
of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  not  exceeding  one  hundred  acres,  as  the 
Society  may  require,  out  of  any  of  the  public  lands  not  previously 
sold  or  appropriated. 

Ninth.  The  Society  shall  retain  the  public  store  and  the  wharf 
thereto  appertaining,  the  present  receptacles  for  emigrants,  with 
the  land  thereto  contiguous,  sufficient  to  accommodate  the  occu- 
pants, and  the  west  half  of  the  public  farm,  dividing  it  through 
the  center  by  a  line  running  northerly  at  right  angles  with  the 
Maryland  avenue;  and,  whenever  required,  the  Government  shall 
further  cede  to  the  Society  in  each  new  settlement  that  may  be 
made,  a  lot  of  suitable  size  for  the  reception  and  accommodation 
of  new  emigrants.  All  property  retained  by,  or  which  may  here- 
after be  ceded  to  the  Society,  with  all  improvements  which  the 
Society  may  make  thereon,  shall  be  exempt  from  taxation  so  long 
a*  the  Society  shall  retain  the  same ;  but  the  Society  shall  take 
such  care  of  all  their  lote  as  the  citizens  are  required  to  take  of 


128 

theirs,  in  order  to  prevent  their  becoming  nuisances ;  and  in  case 
of  neglect  the  town  authorities  shall  be  authorized  to  abate 

o 

such  nuisances  at  the  expense  of  the  Society. 

ARTICLE  II. — The  Society  shall  have  the  privilege  of  intro- 
ducing into  Maryland  in  Liberia,  free  of  duty,  all  its  stores, 
provisions  and  furniture  for  the  use  of  emigrants,  as.  well  as  all 
other  articles  which  it  may  at  any  time  send  there  to  be  sold  for 
the  purpose  of  providing  means  for  the  reception,  accommodation 
and  support  of  emigrants,  so  long  as  they  may  remain  under  the 

care  of  the  Society  ;  and  all  vessels  chartered  bv  the  Society  and 

•  ' 

carrying  emigrants  shall  be  free  from  liirht-lioiise  and  anchorage 

v  CT  C 

duties. 

ARTICLE  III. — Recaptured  Africans  shall  be  admitted  into 
Maryland  in  Liberia,  should  the  United  States  Government  desire 
to  send  them  there,  and  make  provision  for  their  support. 

ARTICLE  IV. — The  Society  shall  give  to  the  Government  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia  the  Government  house  and  public  offices, 
forts,  and  all  munitions  of  war  now  in  the  territory,  also  the  ware- 
house last  erected  by  Governor  Russwurm,  belonging  to  the 
Society.  All  property  of  every  description  not  expressly  ceded 
by  these  articles  of  agreement  to  the  Government  and  people  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia,  is  reserved  to  the  Society,  and  may  be  dis- 
posed of  solely  at  its  discretion. 

ARTICLE  V. — All  emigrants  hereafter  sent  to  Maryland  in 
Liberia  by  the  Society  shall  have  secured  the  same  rights  of 
citizenship  in  Maryland  in  Liberia,  and  upon  the  same  terms  and 
conditions  as  have  been  enjoyed  by  emigrants  heretofore  sent 
there  by  the  Society. 

ARTICLE  VI. — In  case  the  Maryland  State  Colonization  So- 
ciety shall  at  any  time  hereafter  become  united  with  or  merged  in 

v  (. 

any  other  colonization  society ;  or  should  the  duties  now  and  here- 
after to  be  performed  by  said  State  Society  in  regard  to  emigrants 
from  Maryland  be  assumed  by,  or  devolve  upon  the  present,  or 
any  future  colonization  agents,  appointed  by  the  State  of  Mary- 


129 

land,  then  and  in  either  of  such  cases,  all  the  provisions  of  the 
present  agreement  shall  he  mutually  binding  upon  the  Govern- 
ment  and  people  of  Maryland  in  Liberia  on  the  one  hand,  and  on 
such  other  colonization  society,  or  on  such  State  colonization 
agents,  as  the  case  may  be,  respectively  ;  and  shall  secure  to  each 
and  all  of  said  parties  the  benefits  of  the  same. 

ARTICLE  VII. — These  articles  may  be  altered  at  any  time  by 
the  mutual  agreement  of  the  President  and  Managers  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  and  the  Government  of 
Maryland  in  Liberia. 

ARTICLE  VIII. — It  is  hereby  agreed  that  after  the  Govern- 
ment of  Maryland  in  Liberia  shall  have  been  duly  organized, 
and  shall  have  acted  upon  and  duly  ratified  the  foregoing  Articles, 
as  herein  provided  for,  and  shall  have  furnished  the  Society  with 
the  duly  authenticated  evidence  thereof,  the  Society  shall  be 
bound,  and  hereby  binds  itself  to  execute  and  transmit  to  the  said 

Government,  such  Instrument  of  writing  or  Deed  as  shall  be  by 

, 

said  Republic  deemed  necessary  fully  to  confirm,  convey  and 
vest  in  said  Government  the  title  in  fee  simple  to  all  the  said 
lands,  subject  only  to  the  conditions  and  reservations  herein 
contained. 

In  testimony  whereof,  the  undersigned  Commissioners  of  Mary- 

*  * 

land  in  Liberia  have  hereunto  set  their  hands  and  seals,  and  the 
undersigned  President,  Vice-Presidents  and  Managers  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society  have  hereunto  set  their 
hands  and  caused  the  seal  of  the  said  Society  to  be  hereto  affixed. 
Done  at  the  City  of  Baltimore,  Maryland,  in  the  United  States 
of  America,  on  this  twenty-second  day  of  February,  in  the  year 

of  Our  Lord  One  Thousand  Ei<rht  Hundred  and  Fi-ftv-tbur. 

• 

\V.  A.  PROUT,         |  »BAL.  f      \ 

•    x  ^\       f  Commissioners. 

WM.  C  ASS  ELL,  I    s  i.  A  t. .   r       J 

CHARLES  HOWARD,  Pres.  M<1.  State  Col. 


130 

HUGH  DAVEY  EVANS, 

JOHN  HANSON  BRISCOE,  V.  P., 

WM.  CRANE, 


Vice-Pretiden  ts. 


GEORGE  S.  GIBSON, 
WM.  MASON. 

Board  of  Mannr/ers : 

WILLIAM  F.  GILES,  THOS.  WILSON, 

CHARLES  F.  MAYER,  .     J.  H.  McCuLLOH, 
COMFORT  TIFFANY,  J.  MASON  CAMPBELL, 

WILLIAM  WOODWARD,         ISAAC  TYSON,  JUN., 

WM.  H.  KEIGHLER,  FRANCIS  T.  KING, 

\ 

ISAAC  P.  COOK,  CHAS.  J.  M.  GWINN, 

J.  HOWARD  MC-HENRY,        W.  A.  TALBOTT. 
F.  W.  BRUNE,  JR.,  Recording  Secretary. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of: 

JAMES  HALL,  Genl.  Ayt.  Md.  S.  Col.  Society. 
JOHN  SEYS,  Trav.  Agent. 
W.  McLAiN, 
GEO.  W.  S.  HALL. 


CODE  OF  LAWS  FOR  KING  FREEMAN. 


1.  All  men  must  do  to  each  other  as  they  would  have  men  do 
unto  them. 

2.  All  men  must  speak  truth  :  none  but  bad  men  lie. 

3.  If  a  man  kill  another  man  because  he  hated  and  wanted  to 
kill  him,  he  must  be  hung. 

4.  If  a  man  kill  another  man,  and  did  not  hate  him  or  want 
to  kill  him,  but  did  not  take  care,  and  killed  him,  he  must  go  to 
jail  and  be  punished  as  the  judge  says. 


131 


5.  If  two  men  quarrel,  and  fight  on  the  spot,  and  did  not  hate 
before  they  fought,  or  want  to  kill,  and  one  kill  the  other,  he 
must  go  to  jail  and  be  punished  as  the  judge  says. 

6\  If  one  man  kill  another,  and  did  not  hate  him,  or  want  to 

kill  him,  and  tried  not  to  kill  him,  but  killed  him,  he  must  not 

t 
be  punished. 

7.  If  one  man  trv  to  kill  another,  and  the  man  whom  he  tries 

* 

to  kill,  fight  him  and  kill  him  to  save  his  own  life,  he  must  not  be 
punished. 

8.  If  a  man  make  rape  on  a  woman,  and  she  not  willing,  he 
jf     must  be  hung. 

9.  If  a  man  try  to  make  rape  on  a  woman,  and  she  fight  and 
kill  him,  she  must  not  be  punished. 

10.  If  a  man  burn  a  house  in  the  night  where  anybody  are  to 
sleep,  he  must  be  hung. 

11.  If  a  man  burn  a  house  at  any  other  time,  or  a  house  where 
nobody  are  to  sleep,  or  pull  down  a  house  which  is  not  his,  or 
break  into  another  man's  house  because  he  wants  to  steal,  he  must 
go  to  jail  and  be  punished  as  the  judge  says. 

12.  If  a  man,  or  two  men,  or  many  men,  take  a  man,  or  woman, 
or  child,  and  sell  them  for  slaves,  they  must  be  hung. 

13.  If  a  man  hurt  another  by  beating  or  cutting  him  very 
much,  he  must  go  to  jail  and  be  punished  as  the  judge  says. 

14.  If  a  man  take  away  another  man's  wife,  or  use  her  as  his 
wife,  he  must  go  to  jail  and  be  punished  as  the  judge  says. 

15.  If  a  man  have  one  wife,  and  while  she  lives  take  another 
wife,  so  as  to  have  more  than  one  wife  living,  he  must  go  to  jail 
and  t)e  punished  as  the  judge  says ;  besides,  he  must  give  to  both 
wives  and  their  children  a  house  to  live  in,  and  enough  to  eat  and 
drink  as  long  as  they  live. 

16.  If  a  man  steal,  he  must  give  back  what  he  stole,  and  besides, 
he  must  go  to  jail  and  be  punished  as  the  judge  says. 

17.  If  a  woman  do  anything  wrong,  she  must  be  punished  the 
mime  as  a  man. 


132 


.  18.  If  a  man  kill  or  hurt  a  woman,  he  must  be  punished  as  if 
he  had  killed  or  hurt  a  man. 

19.  If  a  man  or  woman  do  any  thing  which  these  or  any  other 
laws  say  is  wrong,  the  constable,  when  he  is  told  of  it  by  anybody, 
must  catch  the  man  or  woman  that  has  done  wrong,  and  bring 
them  before  the  judge.     If  the  constable  will  not  do  so,  he  must 
pay  for  the  wrong  and  be  punished  as  the  judge  says.     If  he  looks 
good  and  tries  to  find  the  man  or  woman  that  did  wrong,  but 
cannot  find  them,  he  must  not  be  punished. 

20.  If  a  man  or  woman  under  one  king,  steal  or  hurt  a  man  or 
woman  under  another  king  or  governor,  the  king  under  whom 
the  man  or  woman  is  that  did  so  must  make  that  man  or  woman 
that  did  the  wrong  pay  for  it,  and  be  punished  besides.     If  the 
king  will  not  do  this,  he  must  pay  for  the  wrong  that  has  been. 
d;me  himself. 

21.  When  any  man  or  woman  is  said  to  have  done  any  wrong, 
the  judge  must  hear  what  everv  bodv  says  that  was  there  or 

tf  O  »  IT  » 

knew  anything  about  it,  and  if  he  thinks  the  man  or  woman  has 
done  the  wrong,  which  is  called  being  Guilty,  he  must  punish  the 
man  or  woman  for  doing  wrong  according  to  the  law,  but  if  the 
judge,  after  he  has  heard  what  every  body  who  was  there  has  to 
say,  does  not  think  the  man  or  woman  guilty,  he  must  let  him  or 
her  go  free.  The  judge  must  go  by  what  the  people  say  that  was 
there  or  knew  anything  about  it. 

22.  The  judge  cannot  punish,  unless  he  sees  the  wrong  done,  or 
hears  other  people  that  he  can  believe,  say  they  saw  it  done,  or 
saw  such  things  as  make  the  judge  know  it  was  done. 

23.  If  a  man  says  before  the  judge  that  any  other  man  or  woman 
did  wrong,  and  speak  lie  when  he  says  so,  he  must  go  to  jail  and 
be  punished  as  the  judge  says,  for  this  is  bad. 

24.  The  king  must  make  judges  to  hear  all  things  which  are 
wrong  among  his  people,  and  to  try  all  men  or  women  that  have 
done  wrong ;  and  the  judges  must  be  the  best  and  wisest  men 
among  the  king's  people. 


133 

25.  The  American  men  must  be  tried  bv  the  American  judges, 

* 

and  when  the  dispute  is  between  a  native  and  an  American  man, 
there  must  be  a  native  judge  and  an  American  judge,  and  if  they 
don't  agree,  the  American  governor  of  the  colony  must  settle  the 
business. 

26.  If  any  man  kill  or  hurt  another  man's  cattle  beasts,  he 
must  pay  for  it,  and  go  to  jail  and  be  punished  as  the  judge  says. 


SONG    OF    THE    EMIGRANTS    TO    CAPE 

PALMAS. 


For  Africa !  for  Africa !  our  way  lies  o'er  the  deep, 

Where  ride  we  crests  of  briny  waves  and  down  their  valleys  sweep : 

We  leave  behind  the  white  sea-gulls  at  limit  of  their  flight, 

Until  around  Cape  Palmas,  again  we'll  greet  their  sight ; 

As  though  the  feathered  things  had  flown  to  welcome  us,  when  we 

Shall  tread,  as  tread  we  Afric's  shore,  the  footsteps  of  the  free. 

For  Africa  !  for  Africa  !  our  flag  is  floating  fair  ; 

We  have  taken  Freedom's  banner,  though  its  stars  are  wanting 

there  ; 

But,  in  their  place,  the  holy  sign  is  on  the  a/Aire  field, 
And  cross  and  stripes  have  now  become  our  standard  and  our 

shield  ; 
And  yet,  where  Afric's  palm  trees  wave,  where  whirls  the  dread 

simoon, 
May  mark  where  pilgrims,  wending  home,  may  loose  their  sandal 

shoon. 

For  Africa !  for  Africa  !  we  bear  the  glorious  light 

Whose  radiance  from  revealed  truth  is  more  than  sunbeam  bright. 

18 


134 

Where  hearts  of  wandering  thousands  no  softening  thoughts  have 

known, 

Where  prayer  has  never  yet  gone  up  to  Heaven's  eternal  throne, 
We'll  plant  the  cross,  the  idol  break,  we'll  teach  the  sacred  word 
Until,  through  heathen  Africa,  our  God  shall  be  adored. 

For  Africa  !  for  Africa !  oh  !  who  would  stay  behind  ; 

The  anchor  hangs  upon  the  bow,  the  sails  swell  in  the  wind : 

Our  fatherland,  the  love  of  thee  within  our  heart  now  reigns — 

Then  bid  thy  wanderers  welcome  through  all  thy  boundless  plains  ; 

Yield,  from  thy  fruitful  bosom,  a  harvest  to  our  toil, 

Until  we  find,  'neath  shadowing  palms,  our  graves  within  thy  soil. 

L. 

November  27,  1834. 


The  flag  of  Liberia  is  the  American  flag,  with  a  cross  of  equal 
arms  of  white  in  place  of  the  stars. 


I  IN"  ID  IB  IX . 


Absorption  of  Maryland  in  Liberia 
into  Liberia  proper,  84. 

Act  of  Maryland  of  1831,  provisions 
of,  16. 

Act  of  Congress  of  1819,  9. 

Alligator,  schooner,  9. 

Am.  Col.  Society,  9 ;  letters  to,  29  ; 
opposed  to  State  action,  14 ;  agree- 
ment with,  14. 

Am.  Board  of  Commissioners  for  For- 
eign Missions,  undertake  to  estab- 
lish free  schools,  41  (note) ;  letter 
to,  29,  60,  61. 

Anchorage  duty  established,  63. 

Ann,  sailing  of  the,  37  ;  passengers 
by  the,  37  (note) ;  voyage  of  the, 
38,  39. 

Annapolis,  meetings  of  the  State 
Society  at,  9. 

Anniversary  of  settlement  celebrated, 
63. 

Appendix,  93. 

Appropriation,  State,  renewed  in 
1852,  74;  renewed  in  1858,  84. 

Ardent  spirits,  use  of,  or  traffic  in, 
prohibited,  22. 

Auxiliary  societies,  10. 

Ayres,  Dr.  Eli,  9. 


B 


Baker,  Dr.  Samuel,  on  committee  to 
prepare  constitution,  13. 


Bullah,  Simleh's,  visit  to  the  Society, 
48 ;  his  speech,  48 ;  his  views 
about  ex  post  facto  laws,  49  (note). 

Baltimore,  contribution  from,  in  1829, 
13. 

Baphro,  King  of  Grand  Cavallv, 
40. 

Baptist  Mission,  86. 

Bassa,  deed  of,  112. 

Berriby,  Grand,  deed  of,  117,  119. 

Bowreh,  deed  of,  103. 

Building  at  Cape  Palmas,  April  15, 
1834,  44. 

Bulama,  Island  of,  suggested,  11. 

Bulyemah,  deed  of,  99. 

c 

Cape  Palmas  selected,  24;  deed  of, 

40;  improvements  at,  in  1853,  85, 

86 ;  commissioners  of  Am.  Bd.  of 

Foreign    Missions,   37 ;    deed    of, 

95. 
Cassell,  W.,  appointed  chief  justice, 

71. 

Cavallv,  deed  of,  95,  98,  105. 
Celebration    of   anniversary   of   the 

Colony,  1)3. 
<  Chesapeake    and     Liberia    Trading 

Company,  Ii9. 

<'hief  justice  provided  for,  70. 
Circulating    medium,    51 ;    form   of 

note,  59. 
Commissioners  of  State  fund,  under 

Act  of  1831,  15 ;  agreement  with, 

for  advances,  27. 

135 


136 


Constables  appointed  by  King  Free- 
man, 48. 

Constitution  of  Maryland  in  Liberia, 
31 ;  circumstance  attending  its 
adoption,  31  (note). 

Contribution,  in  1829,  from  Balti- 
more, 11. 

Contributions  of  the  State  Society  to 
the  cause,  82  ;  by  profit  and  loss 
and  from  collections,  82. 

Congregational  mission,  86. 

Cotton,  ordinance  making  it  a  ten- 
der, 55. 

Custom  of  natives,  in  purchases,  58. 


D 


Drayton,    William     S.,    Lieutenant 

Governor,  81. 
Deeds — African  deeds,  95. 
Denah,  deed  of,  108. 


E 


Elizabeth,  ship,  chartered  by  V.  S., 

9. 

Emigrants  by  the  Ann,  37. 
Emigration  of  A.  C.  S.  in  1828,  11. 
Evans,  Hugh  Davy,  his  work  for  the 

Society,  54. 

Expedition  by  Orion,  14. 
Executive    and  judiciary   functions 

separated,  70. 


Finley,  Robert  S.,  visit  to  Baltimore, 

12. 

Flag  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  28. 
Free  schools  for  natives,  40. 
Freeman,  King,  difficulty  about  rice 

with,   46,    47 ;    his   letter   to   the 

State  Society,  50-51  (note) ;  code  of 

laws  for,  130. 


G 

Garraway,  deed  of,  95,  98. 
Grahway,  deed  of,  123. 

H 

Hall,  Dr.  James,  passenger  in  Orion, 
14 ;  recommended  as  agent,  24 ; 
his  letter  to  Dr.  Ayres  descriptive 
of  Cape  Palmas,  25;  his  arrival  in 
Baltimore  and  acceptance  of  the 
office,  27  ;  his  account  of  fitness,  26 
(note) ;  negotiating  for  purchase  of 
Cape  Palnias,  40  ;  proclamation  of, 
as  governor,  44;  makes  King  Free- 
man pay  for  thefts  by  his  people, 
47 ;  rescue  of  Popo  from  Sassa 
wood  ordeal,  57 ;  resignation  of, 
53  ;  appointed  general  agent,  59  ; 
active  in  closing  native  war,  83; 
school  at  Cape  Palmas,  85. 

Harper — name  given  to  settlement 
at  Cape  Palmas,  52. 

Haidee,  deed  of,  102. 

Hersey,  Rev.  John,  37. 

Hoffman,  Peter,  on  committee  to 
prepare  constitution  for  State  So- 
ciety, 13. 

Holmes,  Mr.  Oliver,  Junior,  ap- 
pointed temporary  governor,  54. 

Howard,  B.  C.,  elected  president  of 
Society,  52. 

Howard,  Charles,  president,  succeed- 
ing Latrobe,  80 ;  his  character,  80. 


Improvements  at  Cape  Palmas  in 
1853,  85,  86. 

Independence,  question  of,  mooted, 
75 ;  address  of  committee  in  re- 
gard to,  75 ;  commissioners  to  ne- 
gotiate appointed,  76 ;  treaty  of, 
77  ;  agreement  of,  125. 


137 


Injuries,  ordinance  for  redress  of,  56. 
International  Association,  90. 


Justices  of  the  Peace  appointed  by 
King  Freeman,  48. 


Latrobe,  J.  H.  B.,  resolution  in  1828, 
11 ;  on  committee  to  prepare  con- 
stitution for  State  Society,  30  ;  re- 
ports constitution  for  Md.  in  Lib., 
36 ;  reports  ordinance  for  tempo- 
rary government,  33  ;  reports  let- 
ter of  instructions  to  Dr.  Hall,  36  ; 
elected  president,  56 ;  village  of, 
87  ;  speech  of,  in  1828,  app.,  95. 

Lafayette,  expedition  by,  14 ;  unfor- 
tunate result  of,  17. 

Liberia  packet,  launch  of  the,  69. 

Light-house  supplied  with  new  lan- 
tern, 65,  90. 

Limit  of  Liberia,  87. 

M 

Maryland  State  Colonization  Society, 

10 ;  organized,  13  ; 
Maryland  in  Liberia,  constitution  of, 

31. 
Maryland,  the  State  of,  embarks  in 

colonization  on  its  own  resources, 

23 ;  renews  the  appropriation  of 

1831,  74,  84. 

Map  of  the  colony,  first,  52 . 
Mount  Tubman,  63. 
Monument  to  Gov.  Russwnrm,  73. 
Margaret  Mercer,  schooner,  25;  Miss, 

25  (note). 

Mary  Caroline  Stevens,  83  (note). 
Mason,  Thomas,  Secretary  of  State, 

81. 


McGill,  Dr.  Samuel  F.,  appointed 
governor,  74 ;  George  R.,  39. 

Mesurada,  Cape,  9. 

Methodist  church,  86. 

Military  duty  of  employees  of  the 
A.  B.  C.  F.  M.,  60,  61;  report  of 
committee  in  regard  to,  61. 

Monroe,  President,  construction  of 
Act  of  1819,  9. 

Monrovia,  The  Ann  reaches,  38. 

N 

New  settlement,  committee  on,  18 ; 

report  of  committee,  18. 
Negapos,  deed  of,  106. 
Nicolson,  Captain,  of  the  Potomac, 

report  of,   56;  present   of,  to  the 

colony,  56  (note). 

o 

Officers  of  original  Society,  13. 

Ordinance,  for  temporary  government 
of  Maryland  in  Liberia,  reported 
by  Mr.  Latrobe,  33 ;  for  redress  of 
injuries,  56 ;  for  maintenance  of 
authority,  64;  separating  execu- 
tive and  judicial  functions,  70; 
providing  for  public  worship,  72. 

Orion,  expedition  by,  14. 

Orphan  Asylum,  Episcopal,  86. 


Palmas,  Cape,  proposed  as  a  site,  11 ; 
recommended  by  committee,  19 ; 
resolution  recommending,  20 ;  pur- 
chase of,  from  natives,  40,  41 ;  de- 
scription of,  42 ;  selection  of  site 
of  Harper,  at,  43. 

Parmah,  King  of  Cape  Palmas,  40. 

Plorah,  deed  of,  101. 

Popo,  rescue  of,  from  Sassa  wood 
ordeal,  57. 


138 


Potomac,  visit  of  frigate,  to  Cape 
Pal  mas,  55. 

Proclamation  of  Governor  Hall,  44. 

Profit  and  loss  account,  88. 

Property,  ordinance  for  taking  care 
of  movable,  52. 

Protestant  Episcopal  Mission,  86. 

Prout,  W.  A.,  commissioner  to  nego- 
tiate independence,  76 ;  elected 
governor,  81 ;  death  of  governor, 
82. 

Public  worship,  ordinance  provid- 
ing for,  72. 

R 

Refusal  to  receive  criminal,  par- 
doned on  condition  of  emigrating 
to  Maryland  in  Liberia,  69. 

Resolution  proposing  State  action, 
12. 

Rock  town,  deed  of,  110. 

Routine  of  life  at  the  Cape,  63. 

Russwurm,  J.  B.,  appointed  gov- 
ernor, 54;  visits  the  U.  S.,  71; 
dinner  to  governor,  72;  death  of, 
73 ;  address  to  the  people  on  occa- 
sion of  his  death,  73;  monument 
to,  73. 

S 

San  Pedro  river,  87. 

Sanford,  Hon.  Henry  S.,  agent  of  in- 
ternational association,  90. 

Sassa  wood  ordeal,  50;  Dr.  Hall's 
rescue  of  native,  50. 

Scharf  s  history,  7. 

School,  the  Hall,  at  Cape  Palmar,  85. 

Seal  of  the  State  Society,  28. 

Separate  State  action  proposed,  12; 
opposed  by  A.  C.  S.,  14. 

Sherbro  Island,  9. 

Slavery,  feeling  in  regard  to,  in  1831, 
19  (note)  •  its  extirpation  the  ob- 
ject of  the  State  Society,  31. 


Song  of  the  Cape  Palmas  emigrants, 
133. 

Southampton  massacre,  14. 

Sovereignty,  ordinance  touching  the, 
of  Md.  in  Lib.,  59. 

State  Colonization  Society  incorpo- 
rated, 10. 

State  of  Maryland,  first  appropria- 
tion, 10 ;  refuses  to  repeal  the  an- 
nual appropriation,  68. 

St.  Mark's  Episcopal  Church,  86. 

Stockton,  Robert  F.,  9. 


Tariff,  65,  66. 

Tabou,  deed  of,  121. 

Tahoe,  deed  of,  115. 
64. 

Temperance,  a  feature  of  the  State 
Society  in  the  settlement,  21 ;  sal- 
utary influence  of  the  principle. 
64. 

Thieving  by  natives,  47. 

Thompson,  James  M.,  39. 

Turner,  Nat,  14. 

V        '.    . 

Vandalia,  L~.  S.  ship,  visits  the  col- 
ony, 62 ;  conduct  of  one  of  the 
officers,  62. 

Vessels  built  and  purchased,  88,  89 
(note). 

w 

War  with  the  natives,  82. 

Weah    Bolio,    King    of    Grahway, 

40. 
Wilson,  Rev.  J.  Leighton,  37  ;  Mrs., 

description  of,  42,  43  (note). 
Wood,  Anthony,  appointed  major  in 

command,  63. 
Wynkoop,  Rev.  S.  R.,  37. 


\